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The initial development of flite was primarily done by awb while
travelling, perhaps the name is doubly appropriate as a substantial
amount of the coding was done over 30,000ft). During most of that
time awb was funded by the Language Technonologies Institute at
Carnegie Mellon University.
Kevin A. Lenzo was involved in the design, conversion techniques and
representions for the voice distributed with flite (as well as being
the actual kal voice itself).
Other contributions are:
Henry Spencer
For the regex code
University of Edinburgh
for releasing Festival for free, making a companion runtime synthesizer
a practical project, much of the design of flite relies on the
architecture decisions made in the Festival Speech Synthesis Systems and
the Edinburgh Speech Tools.
The duration cart tree and intonation (accent and F0) models were
derived from the models in the Festival distribution. which in turn
were trained from the Boston University FM Radio Data Corpus.
Carnegie Mellon University
The included lexicon is derived from CMULEX and the letter to sound
rules are constructed using the Lenzo and Black techniques for
building LTS decision graphs.
Nagoya Institute of Technology
The mlsa code derives from HTS (following a long chain)
Tomoki Toda
The mlsa and mlpg support came view Tomoki's support for voice convertion
in FestVox which in turn (some of which) comes from NITECH's HTS.
Marcela Charfuelan (DFKI)
For the mixed-excitation techniques. These originally came from NITECH
but we understood the technqiues from Marcela's Open Mary Java code and
implemented them in our optimized version of MLSA.
David Huggins-Daines (
much of the clunits code, porting to multiple platforms, substantial
code tidy up and configure/autoconf guidance.
Cepstral, LLC (
For supporting DHD to spend time (in 2001) on flite and passing
back the important early fixes and enhancements including SAPI
support (funded by Portuguese FCT to produce an open source
synthesis solution).
Willie Walker <> and the rest of the Sun Speech Group
lots of low level bugs (and fixes).
Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) Praxis XXI program
The SAPI interface provided by Cepstral, LLC was partially funded by
the above program.
Craig Reese: IDA/Supercomputing Research Center
Joe Campbell: Department of Defense
who wrote the ulaw conversion routines in src/speech/cst_wave_utils.c
Mario Lang:
causing the support of shared libraries to happen
Eric House (
who provided examples of how to do 68K Call Backs for system functions
Greg Parker
peal, the binding glue and shared library foo for getting the arm
version doing something reasonable under PalmOS
Lukas Loehrer <> Feb 2006
alsa support (default if available)
Udhyakumar N
For making the mixed excitation code work, and show its value
Brian Langner
redid the Visual Studio support
Alok Parlikar
Android support, and cg voice dumping (and loading), indic support
Gopala Anumanchipalli
spamf0 support, unitran integration
Richard Sproat and Kyoung-young Kim (UIUC)
Unitran: unicode to sampa grapheme mapping tables
Sun Microsystems
g72x code