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// Copyright 2018 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
// AudioRenderers can be in one of two states at any point in time, either
// the configurable state or the operational state. A renderer is considered
// to be operational any time it has packets queued and waiting to be
// rendered; otherwise it is considered to be in the configurable state. When an
// AudioRenderer has entered the operational state of its life, any attempt to
// call a config method in the interface is considered to be illegal and will
// result in termination of the interface's connection to the audio service.
// If an AudioRenderer must be reconfigured, it is best practice to always call
// `DiscardAllPackets` on the AudioRenderer, before starting to reconfigure it.
interface AudioRenderer : StreamBufferSet, StreamSink {
// Sets the type of the stream to be delivered by the client. Using this
// method implies that the stream encoding is AUDIO_ENCODING_LPCM.
SetPcmStreamType(AudioStreamType type);
// Sets the stream type to be delivered by the client. This method is used for
// compressed pass-through. The media_specific field must be of type audio.
// NOTE: Not currently implemented.
SetStreamType(StreamType type);
// Sets the units used by the presentation (media) timeline. By default, PTS
// units are nanoseconds (as if this were called with values of 1e9 and 1).
SetPtsUnits(uint32 tick_per_second_numerator,
uint32 tick_per_second_denominator);
// Sets the maximum threshold (in frames) between an explicit PTS (user-
// provided) and an expected PTS (determined using interpolation). Beyond this
// threshold, a stream is no longer considered 'continuous' by the renderer.
// Defaults to RoundUp((AudioFPS/PTSTicksPerSec) / 2.0) / AudioFPS
// Most users should not need to change this value from its default.
// Example:
// A user is playing back 48KHz audio from a container, which also contains
// video and needs to be synchronized with the audio. The timestamps are
// provided explicitly per packet by the container, and expressed in mSec
// units. This means that a single tick of the media timeline (1 mSec)
// represents exactly 48 frames of audio. The application in this scenario
// delivers packets of audio to the AudioRenderer, each with exactly 470
// frames of audio, and each with an explicit timestamp set to the best
// possible representation of the presentation time (given this media clock's
// resolution). So, starting from zero, the timestamps would be..
// [ 0, 10, 20, 29, 39, 49, 59, 69, 78, 88, ... ]
// In this example, attempting to use the presentation time to compute the
// starting frame number of the audio in the packet would be wrong the
// majority of the time. The first timestamp is correct (by definition), but
// it will be 24 packets before the timestamps and frame numbers come back
// into alignment (the 24th packet would start with the 11280th audio frame
// and have a PTS of exactly 235).
// One way to fix this situation is to set the PTS continuity threshold
// (henceforth, CT) for the stream to be equal to 1/2 of the time taken by the
// number of frames contained within a single tick of the media clock, rounded
// up. In this scenario, that would be 24.0 frames of audio, or 500 uSec.
// Any packets whose expected PTS was within +/-CT frames of the explicitly
// provided PTS would be considered to be a continuation of the previous frame
// of audio.
// Other possible uses:
// Users who are scheduling audio explicitly, relative to a clock which has
// not been configured as the reference clock, can use this value to control
// the maximum acceptable synchronization error before a discontinuity is
// introduced. E.g., if a user is scheduling audio based on a recovered common
// media clock, and has not published that clock as the reference clock, and
// they set the CT to 20mSec, then up to 20mSec of drift error can accumulate
// before the AudioRenderer deliberately inserts a presentation discontinuity
// to account for the error.
// Users whose need to deal with a container where their timestamps may be
// even less correct than +/- 1/2 of a PTS tick may set this value to
// something larger. This should be the maximum level of inaccuracy present
// in the container timestamps, if known. Failing that, it could be set to
// the maximum tolerable level of drift error before absolute timestamps are
// explicitly obeyed. Finally, a user could set this number to a very large
// value (86400.0 seconds, for example) to effectively cause *all* timestamps
// to be ignored after the first, thus treating all audio as continuous with
// previously delivered packets. Conversely, users who wish to *always*
// explicitly schedule their audio packets exactly may specify a CT of 0.
SetPtsContinuityThreshold(float32 threshold_seconds);
// Set the reference clock used to control playback rate.
// TODO(mpuryear): refine this type when we solidly define what a clock handle
// is/looks like. Also should we allow users to lock their rates to CLOCK_MONO
// instead of following the default (perhaps dynamic) system rate?
SetReferenceClock(handle reference_clock);
// Immediately put the AudioRenderer into a playing state. Start the advance
// of the media timeline, using specific values provided by the caller (or
// default values if not specified). In an optional callback, return the
// timestamp values ultimately used -- these set the ongoing relationship
// between the media and reference timelines (i.e., how to translate between
// the domain of presentation timestamps, and the realm of local system time).
// Local system time is specified in units of nanoseconds; media_time is
// specified in the units defined by the user in the `SetPtsUnits` function,
// or nanoseconds if `SetPtsUnits` is not called.
// The act of placing an AudioRenderer into the playback state establishes a
// relationship between 1) the user-defined media (or presentation) timeline
// for this particular AudioRenderer, and 2) the real-world system reference
// timeline. To communicate how to translate between timelines, the Play()
// callback provides an equivalent timestamp in each time domain. The first
// value ('reference_time') is given in terms of the local system clock; the
// second value ('media_time') is what media instant exactly corresponds to
// that local time. Restated, the frame at 'media_time' in the audio stream
// should be presented at system local time 'reference_time'.
// Note: on calling this API, media_time immediately starts advancing. It is
// possible, although uncommon, for a caller to specify a system time that is
// far in the past, or far into the future. This, along with the specified
// media time, is simply used to determine what media time corresponds to
// 'now', and THAT media time is then intersected with presentation
// timestamps of packets already submitted, to determine which media frames
// should be presented next.
// With the corresponding reference_time and media_time values, a user can
// translate arbitrary time values from one timeline into the other. After
// calling `SetPtsUnits(pts_per_sec_numerator, pts_per_sec_denominator)` and
// given the 'ref_start' and 'media_start' values from `Play()`, then for any
// 'ref_time':
// media_time = ( (ref_time - ref_start) / 1e9
// * (pts_per_sec_numerator / pts_per_sec_denominator) )
// + media_start
// Conversely, for any presentation timestamp 'media_time':
// ref_time = ( (media_time - media_start)
// * (pts_per_sec_denominator / pts_per_sec_numerator)
// * 1e9 )
// + ref_start
// Users, depending on their use case, may optionally choose not to specify
// one or both of these timestamps. A timestamp may be omitted by supplying
// the special value 'kNoTimestamp'. The AudioRenderer automatically deduces
// any omitted timestamp value using the following rules:
// Reference Time
// If 'reference_time' is omitted, the AudioRenderer will select a "safe"
// reference time to begin presentation, based on the minimum lead times for
// the output devices that are currently bound to this AudioRenderer. For
// example, if an AudioRenderer is bound to an internal audio output
// requiring at least 3 mSec of lead time, and an HDMI output requiring at
// least 75 mSec of lead time, the AudioRenderer might (if 'reference_time'
// is omitted) select a reference time 80 mSec from now.
// Media Time
// If media_time is omitted, the AudioRenderer will select one of two values.
// - If the AudioRenderer is resuming from the paused state, and packets have
// not been discarded since being paused, then the AudioRenderer will use a
// media_time corresponding to the instant at which the presentation became
// paused.
// - If the AudioRenderer is being placed into a playing state for the first
// time following startup or a 'discard packets' operation, the initial
// media_time will be set to the PTS of the first payload in the pending
// packet queue. If the pending queue is empty, initial media_time will be
// set to zero.
// Return Value
// When requested, the AudioRenderer will return the 'reference_time' and
// 'media_time' which were selected and used (whether they were explicitly
// specified or not) in the return value of the play call.
// Examples
// 1. A user has queued some audio using `SendPacket` and simply wishes them
// to start playing as soon as possible. The user may call Play without
// providing explicit timestamps -- `Play(kNoTimestamp, kNoTimestamp)`.
// 2. A user has queued some audio using `SendPacket`, and wishes to start
// playback at a specified 'reference_time', in sync with some other media
// stream, either initially or after discarding packets. The user would call
// `Play(reference_time, kNoTimestamp)`.
// 3. A user has queued some audio using `SendPacket`. The first of these
// packets has a PTS of zero, and the user wishes playback to begin as soon as
// possible, but wishes to skip all of the audio content between PTS 0 and PTS
// 'media_time'. The user would call `Play(kNoTimestamp, media_time)`.
// 4. A user has queued some audio using `SendPacket` and want to present this
// media in synch with another player in a different device. The coordinator
// of the group of distributed players sends an explicit message to each
// player telling them to begin presentation of audio at PTS 'media_time', at
// the time (based on the group's shared reference clock) 'reference_time'.
// Here the user would call `Play(reference_time, media_time)`.
// TODO(mpuryear): Define behavior in the case that a user calls `Play` while
// the system is already playing. We should probably do nothing but return a
// valid correspondence pair in response -- unless both reference and media
// times are provided (and do not equate to the current timeline
// relationship), in which case we should introduce a discontinuity.
// TODO(mpuryear): Collapse these if we ever have optional retvals in FIDL
Play(int64 reference_time, int64 media_time)
-> (int64 reference_time, int64 media_time);
PlayNoReply(int64 reference_time, int64 media_time);
// Immediately put the AudioRenderer into the paused state and then report the
// relationship between the media and reference timelines which was
// established (if requested).
// TODO(mpuryear): Define behavior in the case that a user calls `Pause` while
// the system is already in the paused state. We should probably do nothing
// but provide a valid correspondence pair in response.
// TODO(mpuryear): Collapse these if we ever have optional retvals in FIDL
Pause() -> (int64 reference_time, int64 media_time);
// Enable or disable notifications about changes to the minimum clock lead
// time (in nanoseconds) for this AudioRenderer. Calling this method with
// 'enabled' set to true will trigger an immediate `OnMinLeadTimeChanged`
// event with the current minimum lead time for the AudioRenderer. If the
// value changes, an `OnMinLeadTimeChanged` event will be raised with the new
// value. This behavior will continue until the user calls
// `EnableMinLeadTimeEvents(false)`.
// The minimum clock lead time is the amount of time ahead of the reference
// clock's understanding of "now" that packets needs to arrive (relative to
// the playback clock transformation) in order for the mixer to be able to mix
// packet. For example...
// ++ Let the PTS of packet X be P(X)
// ++ Let the function which transforms PTS -> RefClock be R(p) (this function
// is determined by the call to Play(...)
// ++ Let the minimum lead time be MLT
// If R(P(X)) < RefClock.Now() + MLT
// Then the packet is late, and some (or all) of the packet's payload will
// need to be skipped in order to present the packet at the scheduled time.
// TODO(mpuryear): What should the units be here? Options include...
// 1) Normalized to nanoseconds (this is the current API)
// 2) Reference clock units (what happens if the reference clock changes?)
// 3) PTS units (what happens when the user changes the PTS units?)
// TODO(mpuryear): Should `EnableMinLeadTimeEvents` have an optional -> ()
// return value for synchronization purposes? Probably not; users should be
// able to send a disable request and clear their event handler if they no
// longer want notifications. Their in-process dispatcher framework can handle
// draining and dropping any lead time changed events that were already in
// flight when the disable message was sent.
EnableMinLeadTimeEvents(bool enabled);
-> OnMinLeadTimeChanged(int64 min_lead_time_nsec);
// TODO(mpuryear): Eliminate this method when possible. Right now, it is used
// by code requiring synchronous FIDL interfaces to talk to AudioRenderers.
GetMinLeadTime() -> (int64 min_lead_time_nsec);
// Binds to the gain control for this AudioRenderer.
BindGainControl(request<GainControl> gain_control_request);
// StreamBufferSet methods
// See stream.fidl.
// StreamSink methods
// See stream.fidl.
// TODO(mpuryear): Spec methods/events which can be used for unintentional
// discontinuity/underflow detection.
// TODO(mpuryear): Spec methods/events which can be used to report routing
// changes. (Presuming that they belong at this level at all; they may belong
// on some sort of policy object).
// TODO(mpuryear): Spec methods/events which can be used to report policy
// induced gain/ducking changes. (Presuming that they belong at this level at
// all; they may belong on some sort of policy object).