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.. contents::
Sanitizer tools have a very simple code coverage tool built in. It allows to
get function-level, basic-block-level, and edge-level coverage at a very low
How to build and run
SanitizerCoverage can be used with :doc:`AddressSanitizer`,
:doc:`LeakSanitizer`, :doc:`MemorySanitizer`,
UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer, or without any sanitizer. Pass one of the
following compile-time flags:
* ``-fsanitize-coverage=func`` for function-level coverage (very fast).
* ``-fsanitize-coverage=bb`` for basic-block-level coverage (may add up to 30%
**extra** slowdown).
* ``-fsanitize-coverage=edge`` for edge-level coverage (up to 40% slowdown).
You may also specify ``-fsanitize-coverage=indirect-calls`` for
additional `caller-callee coverage`_.
At run time, pass ``coverage=1`` in ``ASAN_OPTIONS``,
appropriate. For the standalone coverage mode, use ``UBSAN_OPTIONS``.
To get `Coverage counters`_, add ``-fsanitize-coverage=8bit-counters``
to one of the above compile-time flags. At runtime, use
.. code-block:: console
% cat -n
1 #include <stdio.h>
2 __attribute__((noinline))
3 void foo() { printf("foo\n"); }
5 int main(int argc, char **argv) {
6 if (argc == 2)
7 foo();
8 printf("main\n");
9 }
% clang++ -g -fsanitize=address -fsanitize-coverage=func
% ASAN_OPTIONS=coverage=1 ./a.out; ls -l *sancov
-rw-r----- 1 kcc eng 4 Nov 27 12:21 a.out.22673.sancov
% ASAN_OPTIONS=coverage=1 ./a.out foo ; ls -l *sancov
-rw-r----- 1 kcc eng 4 Nov 27 12:21 a.out.22673.sancov
-rw-r----- 1 kcc eng 8 Nov 27 12:21 a.out.22679.sancov
Every time you run an executable instrumented with SanitizerCoverage
one ``*.sancov`` file is created during the process shutdown.
If the executable is dynamically linked against instrumented DSOs,
one ``*.sancov`` file will be also created for every DSO.
The format of ``*.sancov`` files is very simple: the first 8 bytes is the magic,
one of ``0xC0BFFFFFFFFFFF64`` and ``0xC0BFFFFFFFFFFF32``. The last byte of the
magic defines the size of the following offsets. The rest of the data is the
offsets in the corresponding binary/DSO that were executed during the run.
A simple script
``$LLVM/projects/compiler-rt/lib/sanitizer_common/scripts/`` is
provided to dump these offsets.
.. code-block:: console
% print a.out.22679.sancov a.out.22673.sancov read 2 PCs from a.out.22679.sancov read 1 PCs from a.out.22673.sancov 2 files merged; 2 PCs total
You can then filter the output of ```` through ``addr2line --exe
ObjectFile`` or ``llvm-symbolizer --obj ObjectFile`` to get file names and line
.. code-block:: console
% print a.out.22679.sancov a.out.22673.sancov 2> /dev/null | llvm-symbolizer --obj a.out
Sancov Tool
A new experimental ``sancov`` tool is developed to process coverage files.
The tool is part of LLVM project and is currently supported only on Linux.
It can handle symbolization tasks autonomously without any extra support
from the environment. You need to pass .sancov files (named
``<module_name>.<pid>.sancov`` and paths to all corresponding binary elf files.
Sancov matches these files using module names and binaries file names.
.. code-block:: console
USAGE: sancov [options] <action> (<binary file>|<.sancov file>)...
Action (required)
-print - Print coverage addresses
-covered-functions - Print all covered functions.
-not-covered-functions - Print all not covered functions.
-symbolize - Symbolizes the report.
-blacklist=<string> - Blacklist file (sanitizer blacklist format).
-demangle - Print demangled function name.
-strip_path_prefix=<string> - Strip this prefix from file paths in reports
Coverage Reports (Experimental)
``.sancov`` files do not contain enough information to generate a source-level
coverage report. The missing information is contained
in debug info of the binary. Thus the ``.sancov`` has to be symbolized
to produce a ``.symcov`` file first:
.. code-block:: console
sancov -symbolize my_program.123.sancov my_program > my_program.123.symcov
The ``.symcov`` file can be browsed overlayed over the source code by
running ``tools/sancov/`` script that will start
an HTTP server.
How good is the coverage?
It is possible to find out which PCs are not covered, by subtracting the covered
set from the set of all instrumented PCs. The latter can be obtained by listing
all callsites of ``__sanitizer_cov()`` in the binary. On Linux, ````
can do this for you. Just supply the path to binary and a list of covered PCs:
.. code-block:: console
% print a.out.12345.sancov > covered.txt read 2 64-bit PCs from a.out.12345.sancov 1 file merged; 2 PCs total
% missing a.out < covered.txt found 3 instrumented PCs in a.out read 2 PCs from stdin 1 PCs missing from coverage
Edge coverage
Consider this code:
.. code-block:: c++
void foo(int *a) {
if (a)
*a = 0;
It contains 3 basic blocks, let's name them A, B, C:
.. code-block:: none
| \
| B
| /
If blocks A, B, and C are all covered we know for certain that the edges A=>B
and B=>C were executed, but we still don't know if the edge A=>C was executed.
Such edges of control flow graph are called
`critical <>`_. The
edge-level coverage (``-fsanitize-coverage=edge``) simply splits all critical
edges by introducing new dummy blocks and then instruments those blocks:
.. code-block:: none
| \
| /
When ``coverage_bitset=1`` run-time flag is given, the coverage will also be
dumped as a bitset (text file with 1 for blocks that have been executed and 0
for blocks that were not).
.. code-block:: console
% clang++ -fsanitize=address -fsanitize-coverage=edge
% ASAN_OPTIONS="coverage=1:coverage_bitset=1" ./a.out
% ASAN_OPTIONS="coverage=1:coverage_bitset=1" ./a.out 1
% head *bitset*
==> a.out.38214.bitset-sancov <==
==> a.out.6128.bitset-sancov <==
For a given executable the length of the bitset is always the same (well,
unless dlopen/dlclose come into play), so the bitset coverage can be
easily used for bitset-based corpus distillation.
Caller-callee coverage
Every indirect function call is instrumented with a run-time function call that
captures caller and callee. At the shutdown time the process dumps a separate
file called ``caller-callee.PID.sancov`` which contains caller/callee pairs as
pairs of lines (odd lines are callers, even lines are callees)
.. code-block:: console
a.out 0x4a2e0c
a.out 0x4a6510
a.out 0x4a2e0c
a.out 0x4a87f0
Current limitations:
* Only the first 14 callees for every caller are recorded, the rest are silently
* The output format is not very compact since caller and callee may reside in
different modules and we need to spell out the module names.
* The routine that dumps the output is not optimized for speed
* Only Linux x86_64 is tested so far.
* Sandboxes are not supported.
Coverage counters
This experimental feature is inspired by
`AFL <>`__'s coverage
instrumentation. With additional compile-time and run-time flags you can get
more sensitive coverage information. In addition to boolean values assigned to
every basic block (edge) the instrumentation will collect imprecise counters.
On exit, every counter will be mapped to a 8-bit bitset representing counter
ranges: ``1, 2, 3, 4-7, 8-15, 16-31, 32-127, 128+`` and those 8-bit bitsets will
be dumped to disk.
.. code-block:: console
% clang++ -g -fsanitize=address -fsanitize-coverage=edge,8bit-counters
% ASAN_OPTIONS="coverage=1:coverage_counters=1" ./a.out
% ls -l *counters-sancov
... a.out.17110.counters-sancov
% xxd *counters-sancov
0000000: 0001 0100 01
These counters may also be used for in-process coverage-guided fuzzers. See
.. code-block:: c++
// The coverage instrumentation may optionally provide imprecise counters.
// Rather than exposing the counter values to the user we instead map
// the counters to a bitset.
// Every counter is associated with 8 bits in the bitset.
// We define 8 value ranges: 1, 2, 3, 4-7, 8-15, 16-31, 32-127, 128+
// The i-th bit is set to 1 if the counter value is in the i-th range.
// This counter-based coverage implementation is *not* thread-safe.
// Returns the number of registered coverage counters.
uintptr_t __sanitizer_get_number_of_counters();
// Updates the counter 'bitset', clears the counters and returns the number of
// new bits in 'bitset'.
// If 'bitset' is nullptr, only clears the counters.
// Otherwise 'bitset' should be at least
// __sanitizer_get_number_of_counters bytes long and 8-aligned.
__sanitizer_update_counter_bitset_and_clear_counters(uint8_t *bitset);
Tracing basic blocks
Experimental support for basic block (or edge) tracing.
With ``-fsanitize-coverage=trace-bb`` the compiler will insert
``__sanitizer_cov_trace_basic_block(s32 *id)`` before every function, basic block, or edge
(depending on the value of ``-fsanitize-coverage=[func,bb,edge]``).
.. code-block:: console
% clang -g -fsanitize=address -fsanitize-coverage=edge,trace-bb
% ASAN_OPTIONS=coverage=1 ./a.out
This will produce two files after the process exit:
`trace-points.PID.sancov` and `trace-events.PID.sancov`.
The first file will contain a textual description of all the instrumented points in the program
in the form that you can feed into llvm-symbolizer (e.g. `a.out 0x4dca89`), one per line.
The second file will contain the actual execution trace as a sequence of 4-byte integers
-- these integers are the indices into the array of instrumented points (the first file).
Basic block tracing is currently supported only for single-threaded applications.
Tracing PCs
*Experimental* feature similar to tracing basic blocks, but with a different API.
With ``-fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc`` the compiler will insert
``__sanitizer_cov_trace_pc()`` on every edge.
With an additional ``...=trace-pc,indirect-calls`` flag
``__sanitizer_cov_trace_pc_indirect(void *callee)`` will be inserted on every indirect call.
These callbacks are not implemented in the Sanitizer run-time and should be defined
by the user. So, these flags do not require the other sanitizer to be used.
This mechanism is used for fuzzing the Linux kernel (
and can be used with `AFL <>`__.
Tracing PCs with guards
Another *experimental* feature that tries to combine the functionality of `trace-pc`,
`8bit-counters` and boolean coverage.
With ``-fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc-guard`` the compiler will insert the following code
on every edge:
.. code-block:: none
if (guard_variable)
Every edge will have its own `guard_variable` (uint32_t).
The compler will also insert a module constructor that will call
.. code-block:: c++
// The guards are [start, stop).
// This function may be called multiple times with the same values of start/stop.
__sanitizer_cov_trace_pc_guard_init(uint32_t *start, uint32_t *stop);
Similarly to `trace-pc,indirect-calls`, with `trace-pc-guards,indirect-calls`
``__sanitizer_cov_trace_pc_indirect(void *callee)`` will be inserted on every indirect call.
The functions `__sanitizer_cov_trace_pc_*` should be defined by the user.
.. code-block:: c++
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sanitizer/coverage_interface.h>
// This callback is inserted by the compiler as a module constructor
// into every compilation unit. 'start' and 'stop' correspond to the
// beginning and end of the section with the guards for the entire
// binary (executable or DSO) and so it will be called multiple times
// with the same parameters.
extern "C" void __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc_guard_init(uint32_t *start,
uint32_t *stop) {
static uint64_t N; // Counter for the guards.
if (start == stop || *start) return; // Initialize only once.
printf("INIT: %p %p\n", start, stop);
for (uint32_t *x = start; x < stop; x++)
*x = ++N; // Guards should start from 1.
// This callback is inserted by the compiler on every edge in the
// control flow (some optimizations apply).
// Typically, the compiler will emit the code like this:
// if(*guard)
// __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc_guard(guard);
// But for large functions it will emit a simple call:
// __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc_guard(guard);
extern "C" void __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc_guard(uint32_t *guard) {
if (!*guard) return; // Duplicate the guard check.
// If you set *guard to 0 this code will not be called again for this edge.
// Now you can get the PC and do whatever you want:
// store it somewhere or symbolize it and print right away.
// The values of `*guard` are as you set them in
// __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc_guard_init and so you can make them consecutive
// and use them to dereference an array or a bit vector.
void *PC = __builtin_return_address(0);
char PcDescr[1024];
// This function is a part of the sanitizer run-time.
// To use it, link with AddressSanitizer or other sanitizer.
__sanitizer_symbolize_pc(PC, "%p %F %L", PcDescr, sizeof(PcDescr));
printf("guard: %p %x PC %s\n", guard, *guard, PcDescr);
.. code-block:: c++
void foo() { }
int main(int argc, char **argv) {
if (argc > 1) foo();
.. code-block:: console
clang++ -g -fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc-guard -c
clang++ trace-pc-guard-example.o -fsanitize=address
ASAN_OPTIONS=strip_path_prefix=`pwd`/ ./a.out
.. code-block:: console
INIT: 0x71bcd0 0x71bce0
guard: 0x71bcd4 2 PC 0x4ecd5b in main
guard: 0x71bcd8 3 PC 0x4ecd9e in main
.. code-block:: console
ASAN_OPTIONS=strip_path_prefix=`pwd`/ ./a.out with-foo
.. code-block:: console
INIT: 0x71bcd0 0x71bce0
guard: 0x71bcd4 2 PC 0x4ecd5b in main
guard: 0x71bcdc 4 PC 0x4ecdc7 in main
guard: 0x71bcd0 1 PC 0x4ecd20 in foo()
Tracing data flow
Support for data-flow-guided fuzzing.
With ``-fsanitize-coverage=trace-cmp`` the compiler will insert extra instrumentation
around comparison instructions and switch statements.
Similarly, with ``-fsanitize-coverage=trace-div`` the compiler will instrument
integer division instructions (to capture the right argument of division)
and with ``-fsanitize-coverage=trace-gep`` --
the `LLVM GEP instructions <>`_
(to capture array indices).
.. code-block:: c++
// Called before a comparison instruction.
// Arg1 and Arg2 are arguments of the comparison.
void __sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp1(uint8_t Arg1, uint8_t Arg2);
void __sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp2(uint16_t Arg1, uint16_t Arg2);
void __sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp4(uint32_t Arg1, uint32_t Arg2);
void __sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp8(uint64_t Arg1, uint64_t Arg2);
// Called before a switch statement.
// Val is the switch operand.
// Cases[0] is the number of case constants.
// Cases[1] is the size of Val in bits.
// Cases[2:] are the case constants.
void __sanitizer_cov_trace_switch(uint64_t Val, uint64_t *Cases);
// Called before a division statement.
// Val is the second argument of division.
void __sanitizer_cov_trace_div4(uint32_t Val);
void __sanitizer_cov_trace_div8(uint64_t Val);
// Called before a GetElemementPtr (GEP) instruction
// for every non-constant array index.
void __sanitizer_cov_trace_gep(uintptr_t Idx);
This interface is a subject to change.
The current implementation is not thread-safe and thus can be safely used only for single-threaded targets.
Output directory
By default, .sancov files are created in the current working directory.
This can be changed with ``ASAN_OPTIONS=coverage_dir=/path``:
.. code-block:: console
% ASAN_OPTIONS="coverage=1:coverage_dir=/tmp/cov" ./a.out foo
% ls -l /tmp/cov/*sancov
-rw-r----- 1 kcc eng 4 Nov 27 12:21 a.out.22673.sancov
-rw-r----- 1 kcc eng 8 Nov 27 12:21 a.out.22679.sancov
Sudden death
Normally, coverage data is collected in memory and saved to disk when the
program exits (with an ``atexit()`` handler), when a SIGSEGV is caught, or when
``__sanitizer_cov_dump()`` is called.
If the program ends with a signal that ASan does not handle (or can not handle
at all, like SIGKILL), coverage data will be lost. This is a big problem on
Android, where SIGKILL is a normal way of evicting applications from memory.
With ``ASAN_OPTIONS=coverage=1:coverage_direct=1`` coverage data is written to a
memory-mapped file as soon as it collected.
.. code-block:: console
% ASAN_OPTIONS="coverage=1:coverage_direct=1" ./a.out
% ls 7036.sancov.raw a.out
% rawunpack 7036.sancov.raw reading map unpacking 7036.sancov.raw
writing 1 PCs to a.out.7036.sancov
% print a.out.7036.sancov read 1 PCs from a.out.7036.sancov 1 files merged; 1 PCs total
Note that on 64-bit platforms, this method writes 2x more data than the default,
because it stores full PC values instead of 32-bit offsets.
In-process fuzzing
Coverage data could be useful for fuzzers and sometimes it is preferable to run
a fuzzer in the same process as the code being fuzzed (in-process fuzzer).
You can use ``__sanitizer_get_total_unique_coverage()`` from
``<sanitizer/coverage_interface.h>`` which returns the number of currently
covered entities in the program. This will tell the fuzzer if the coverage has
increased after testing every new input.
If a fuzzer finds a bug in the ASan run, you will need to save the reproducer
before exiting the process. Use ``__asan_set_death_callback`` from
``<sanitizer/asan_interface.h>`` to do that.
An example of such fuzzer can be found in `the LLVM tree
This coverage implementation is **fast**. With function-level coverage
(``-fsanitize-coverage=func``) the overhead is not measurable. With
basic-block-level coverage (``-fsanitize-coverage=bb``) the overhead varies
between 0 and 25%.
============== ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= =========
benchmark cov0 cov1 diff 0-1 cov2 diff 0-2 diff 1-2
============== ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= =========
400.perlbench 1296.00 1307.00 1.01 1465.00 1.13 1.12
401.bzip2 858.00 854.00 1.00 1010.00 1.18 1.18
403.gcc 613.00 617.00 1.01 683.00 1.11 1.11
429.mcf 605.00 582.00 0.96 610.00 1.01 1.05
445.gobmk 896.00 880.00 0.98 1050.00 1.17 1.19
456.hmmer 892.00 892.00 1.00 918.00 1.03 1.03
458.sjeng 995.00 1009.00 1.01 1217.00 1.22 1.21
462.libquantum 497.00 492.00 0.99 534.00 1.07 1.09
464.h264ref 1461.00 1467.00 1.00 1543.00 1.06 1.05
471.omnetpp 575.00 590.00 1.03 660.00 1.15 1.12
473.astar 658.00 652.00 0.99 715.00 1.09 1.10
483.xalancbmk 471.00 491.00 1.04 582.00 1.24 1.19
433.milc 616.00 627.00 1.02 627.00 1.02 1.00
444.namd 602.00 601.00 1.00 654.00 1.09 1.09
447.dealII 630.00 634.00 1.01 653.00 1.04 1.03
450.soplex 365.00 368.00 1.01 395.00 1.08 1.07
453.povray 427.00 434.00 1.02 495.00 1.16 1.14
470.lbm 357.00 375.00 1.05 370.00 1.04 0.99
482.sphinx3 927.00 928.00 1.00 1000.00 1.08 1.08
============== ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= =========
Why another coverage?
Why did we implement yet another code coverage?
* We needed something that is lightning fast, plays well with
AddressSanitizer, and does not significantly increase the binary size.
* Traditional coverage implementations based in global counters
`suffer from contention on counters