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// Copyright 2018 Developers of the Rand project.
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 <LICENSE-APACHE or
//> or the MIT license
// <LICENSE-MIT or>, at your
// option. This file may not be copied, modified, or distributed
// except according to those terms.
//! Random number generators and adapters
//! ## Background: Random number generators (RNGs)
//! Computers cannot produce random numbers from nowhere. We classify
//! random number generators as follows:
//! - "True" random number generators (TRNGs) use hard-to-predict data sources
//! (e.g. the high-resolution parts of event timings and sensor jitter) to
//! harvest random bit-sequences, apply algorithms to remove bias and
//! estimate available entropy, then combine these bits into a byte-sequence
//! or an entropy pool. This job is usually done by the operating system or
//! a hardware generator (HRNG).
//! - "Pseudo"-random number generators (PRNGs) use algorithms to transform a
//! seed into a sequence of pseudo-random numbers. These generators can be
//! fast and produce well-distributed unpredictable random numbers (or not).
//! They are usually deterministic: given algorithm and seed, the output
//! sequence can be reproduced. They have finite period and eventually loop;
//! with many algorithms this period is fixed and can be proven sufficiently
//! long, while others are chaotic and the period depends on the seed.
//! - "Cryptographically secure" pseudo-random number generators (CSPRNGs)
//! are the sub-set of PRNGs which are secure. Security of the generator
//! relies both on hiding the internal state and using a strong algorithm.
//! ## Traits and functionality
//! All RNGs implement the [`RngCore`] trait, as a consequence of which the
//! [`Rng`] extension trait is automatically implemented. Secure RNGs may
//! additionally implement the [`CryptoRng`] trait.
//! All PRNGs require a seed to produce their random number sequence. The
//! [`SeedableRng`] trait provides three ways of constructing PRNGs:
//! - `from_seed` accepts a type specific to the PRNG
//! - `from_rng` allows a PRNG to be seeded from any other RNG
//! - `seed_from_u64` allows any PRNG to be seeded from a `u64` insecurely
//! - `from_entropy` securely seeds a PRNG from fresh entropy
//! Use the [`rand_core`] crate when implementing your own RNGs.
//! ## Our generators
//! This crate provides several random number generators:
//! - [`OsRng`] is an interface to the operating system's random number
//! source. Typically the operating system uses a CSPRNG with entropy
//! provided by a TRNG and some type of on-going re-seeding.
//! - [`ThreadRng`], provided by the [`thread_rng`] function, is a handle to a
//! thread-local CSPRNG with periodic seeding from [`OsRng`]. Because this
//! is local, it is typically much faster than [`OsRng`]. It should be
//! secure, though the paranoid may prefer [`OsRng`].
//! - [`StdRng`] is a CSPRNG chosen for good performance and trust of security
//! (based on reviews, maturity and usage). The current algorithm is ChaCha20,
//! which is well established and rigorously analysed.
//! [`StdRng`] provides the algorithm used by [`ThreadRng`] but without
//! periodic reseeding.
//! - [`SmallRng`] is an **insecure** PRNG designed to be fast, simple, require
//! little memory, and have good output quality.
//! The algorithms selected for [`StdRng`] and [`SmallRng`] may change in any
//! release and may be platform-dependent, therefore they should be considered
//! **not reproducible**.
//! ## Additional generators
//! **TRNGs**: The [`rdrand`] crate provides an interface to the RDRAND and
//! RDSEED instructions available in modern Intel and AMD CPUs.
//! The [`rand_jitter`] crate provides a user-space implementation of
//! entropy harvesting from CPU timer jitter, but is very slow and has
//! [security issues](
//! **PRNGs**: Several companion crates are available, providing individual or
//! families of PRNG algorithms. These provide the implementations behind
//! [`StdRng`] and [`SmallRng`] but can also be used directly, indeed *should*
//! be used directly when **reproducibility** matters.
//! Some suggestions are: [`rand_chacha`], [`rand_pcg`], [`rand_xoshiro`].
//! A full list can be found by searching for crates with the [`rng` tag].
//! [`Rng`]: crate::Rng
//! [`RngCore`]: crate::RngCore
//! [`CryptoRng`]: crate::CryptoRng
//! [`SeedableRng`]: crate::SeedableRng
//! [`thread_rng`]: crate::thread_rng
//! [`rdrand`]:
//! [`rand_jitter`]:
//! [`rand_chacha`]:
//! [`rand_pcg`]:
//! [`rand_xoshiro`]:
//! [`rng` tag]:
pub mod adapter;
pub mod mock; // Public so we don't export `StepRng` directly, making it a bit
// more clear it is intended for testing.
#[cfg(feature = "small_rng")] mod small;
#[cfg(feature = "std_rng")] mod std;
#[cfg(all(feature = "std", feature = "std_rng"))] pub(crate) mod thread;
#[cfg(feature = "small_rng")] pub use self::small::SmallRng;
#[cfg(feature = "std_rng")] pub use self::std::StdRng;
#[cfg(all(feature = "std", feature = "std_rng"))] pub use self::thread::ThreadRng;
#[cfg(feature = "getrandom")] pub use rand_core::OsRng;