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Deprecated features
In general features are intended to be supported indefinitely once
introduced into QEMU. In the event that a feature needs to be removed,
it will be listed in this section. The feature will remain functional
for 2 releases prior to actual removal. Deprecated features may also
generate warnings on the console when QEMU starts up, or if activated
via a monitor command, however, this is not a mandatory requirement.
Prior to the 2.10.0 release there was no official policy on how
long features would be deprecated prior to their removal, nor
any documented list of which features were deprecated. Thus
any features deprecated prior to 2.10.0 will be treated as if
they were first deprecated in the 2.10.0 release.
What follows is a list of all features currently marked as
System emulator command line arguments
``-machine enforce-config-section=on|off`` (since 3.1)
The ``enforce-config-section`` parameter is replaced by the
``-global migration.send-configuration={on|off}`` option.
``-no-kvm`` (since 1.3.0)
The ``-no-kvm`` argument is now a synonym for setting ``-accel tcg``.
``-usbdevice`` (since 2.10.0)
The ``-usbdevice DEV`` argument is now a synonym for setting
the ``-device usb-DEV`` argument instead. The deprecated syntax
would automatically enable USB support on the machine type.
If using the new syntax, USB support must be explicitly
enabled via the ``-machine usb=on`` argument.
``-drive file=json:{...{'driver':'file'}}`` (since 3.0)
The 'file' driver for drives is no longer appropriate for character or host
devices and will only accept regular files (S_IFREG). The correct driver
for these file types is 'host_cdrom' or 'host_device' as appropriate.
``-net ...,name=``\ *name* (since 3.1)
The ``name`` parameter of the ``-net`` option is a synonym
for the ``id`` parameter, which should now be used instead.
``-smp`` (invalid topologies) (since 3.1)
CPU topology properties should describe whole machine topology including
possible CPUs.
However, historically it was possible to start QEMU with an incorrect topology
where *n* <= *sockets* * *cores* * *threads* < *maxcpus*,
which could lead to an incorrect topology enumeration by the guest.
Support for invalid topologies will be removed, the user must ensure
topologies described with -smp include all possible cpus, i.e.
*sockets* * *cores* * *threads* = *maxcpus*.
``-vnc acl`` (since 4.0.0)
The ``acl`` option to the ``-vnc`` argument has been replaced
by the ``tls-authz`` and ``sasl-authz`` options.
``QEMU_AUDIO_`` environment variables and ``-audio-help`` (since 4.0)
The ``-audiodev`` argument is now the preferred way to specify audio
backend settings instead of environment variables. To ease migration to
the new format, the ``-audiodev-help`` option can be used to convert
the current values of the environment variables to ``-audiodev`` options.
Creating sound card devices and vnc without ``audiodev=`` property (since 4.2)
When not using the deprecated legacy audio config, each sound card
should specify an ``audiodev=`` property. Additionally, when using
vnc, you should specify an ``audiodev=`` propery if you plan to
transmit audio through the VNC protocol.
``-mon ...,control=readline,pretty=on|off`` (since 4.1)
The ``pretty=on|off`` switch has no effect for HMP monitors, but is
silently ignored. Using the switch with HMP monitors will become an
error in the future.
``-realtime`` (since 4.1)
The ``-realtime mlock=on|off`` argument has been replaced by the
``-overcommit mem-lock=on|off`` argument.
``-numa node,mem=``\ *size* (since 4.1)
The parameter ``mem`` of ``-numa node`` is used to assign a part of
guest RAM to a NUMA node. But when using it, it's impossible to manage specified
RAM chunk on the host side (like bind it to a host node, setting bind policy, ...),
so guest end-ups with the fake NUMA configuration with suboptiomal performance.
However since 2014 there is an alternative way to assign RAM to a NUMA node
using parameter ``memdev``, which does the same as ``mem`` and adds
means to actualy manage node RAM on the host side. Use parameter ``memdev``
with *memory-backend-ram* backend as an replacement for parameter ``mem``
to achieve the same fake NUMA effect or a properly configured
*memory-backend-file* backend to actually benefit from NUMA configuration.
In future new machine versions will not accept the option but it will still
work with old machine types. User can check QAPI schema to see if the legacy
option is supported by looking at MachineInfo::numa-mem-supported property.
``-numa`` node (without memory specified) (since 4.1)
Splitting RAM by default between NUMA nodes has the same issues as ``mem``
parameter described above with the difference that the role of the user plays
QEMU using implicit generic or board specific splitting rule.
Use ``memdev`` with *memory-backend-ram* backend or ``mem`` (if
it's supported by used machine type) to define mapping explictly instead.
``-mem-path`` fallback to RAM (since 4.1)
Currently if guest RAM allocation from file pointed by ``mem-path``
fails, QEMU falls back to allocating from RAM, which might result
in unpredictable behavior since the backing file specified by the user
is ignored. In the future, users will be responsible for making sure
the backing storage specified with ``-mem-path`` can actually provide
the guest RAM configured with ``-m`` and QEMU will fail to start up if
RAM allocation is unsuccessful.
RISC-V ``-bios`` (since 4.1)
QEMU 4.1 introduced support for the -bios option in QEMU for RISC-V for the
RISC-V virt machine and sifive_u machine.
QEMU 4.1 has no changes to the default behaviour to avoid breakages. This
default will change in a future QEMU release, so please prepare now. All users
of the virt or sifive_u machine must change their command line usage.
QEMU 4.1 has three options, please migrate to one of these three:
1. ``-bios none`` - This is the current default behavior if no -bios option
is included. QEMU will not automatically load any firmware. It is up
to the user to load all the images they need.
2. ``-bios default`` - In a future QEMU release this will become the default
behaviour if no -bios option is specified. This option will load the
default OpenSBI firmware automatically. The firmware is included with
the QEMU release and no user interaction is required. All a user needs
to do is specify the kernel they want to boot with the -kernel option
3. ``-bios <file>`` - Tells QEMU to load the specified file as the firmwrae.
``-tb-size`` option (since 5.0)
QEMU 5.0 introduced an alternative syntax to specify the size of the translation
block cache, ``-accel tcg,tb-size=``. The new syntax deprecates the
previously available ``-tb-size`` option.
``-show-cursor`` option (since 5.0)
Use ``-display sdl,show-cursor=on`` or
``-display gtk,show-cursor=on`` instead.
QEMU Machine Protocol (QMP) commands
``change`` (since 2.5.0)
Use ``blockdev-change-medium`` or ``change-vnc-password`` instead.
``blockdev-open-tray``, ``blockdev-close-tray`` argument ``device`` (since 2.8.0)
Use argument ``id`` instead.
``eject`` argument ``device`` (since 2.8.0)
Use argument ``id`` instead.
``blockdev-change-medium`` argument ``device`` (since 2.8.0)
Use argument ``id`` instead.
``block_set_io_throttle`` argument ``device`` (since 2.8.0)
Use argument ``id`` instead.
``migrate_set_downtime`` and ``migrate_set_speed`` (since 2.8.0)
Use ``migrate-set-parameters`` instead.
``query-named-block-nodes`` result ``encryption_key_missing`` (since 2.10.0)
Always false.
``query-block`` result ``inserted.encryption_key_missing`` (since 2.10.0)
Always false.
``blockdev-add`` empty string argument ``backing`` (since 2.10.0)
Use argument value ``null`` instead.
``migrate-set-cache-size`` and ``query-migrate-cache-size`` (since 2.11.0)
Use ``migrate-set-parameters`` and ``query-migrate-parameters`` instead.
``block-commit`` arguments ``base`` and ``top`` (since 3.1.0)
Use arguments ``base-node`` and ``top-node`` instead.
``object-add`` option ``props`` (since 5.0)
Specify the properties for the object as top-level arguments instead.
``query-named-block-nodes`` and ``query-block`` result dirty-bitmaps[i].status (since 4.0)
The ``status`` field of the ``BlockDirtyInfo`` structure, returned by
these commands is deprecated. Two new boolean fields, ``recording`` and
``busy`` effectively replace it.
``query-block`` result field ``dirty-bitmaps`` (Since 4.2)
The ``dirty-bitmaps`` field of the ``BlockInfo`` structure, returned by
the query-block command is itself now deprecated. The ``dirty-bitmaps``
field of the ``BlockDeviceInfo`` struct should be used instead, which is the
type of the ``inserted`` field in query-block replies, as well as the
type of array items in query-named-block-nodes.
Since the ``dirty-bitmaps`` field is optionally present in both the old and
new locations, clients must use introspection to learn where to anticipate
the field if/when it does appear in command output.
``query-cpus`` (since 2.12.0)
The ``query-cpus`` command is replaced by the ``query-cpus-fast`` command.
``query-cpus-fast`` ``arch`` output member (since 3.0.0)
The ``arch`` output member of the ``query-cpus-fast`` command is
replaced by the ``target`` output member.
``cpu-add`` (since 4.0)
Use ``device_add`` for hotplugging vCPUs instead of ``cpu-add``. See
documentation of ``query-hotpluggable-cpus`` for additional
``query-events`` (since 4.0)
The ``query-events`` command has been superseded by the more powerful
and accurate ``query-qmp-schema`` command.
chardev client socket with ``wait`` option (since 4.0)
Character devices creating sockets in client mode should not specify
the 'wait' field, which is only applicable to sockets in server mode
Human Monitor Protocol (HMP) commands
``cpu-add`` (since 4.0)
Use ``device_add`` for hotplugging vCPUs instead of ``cpu-add``. See
documentation of ``query-hotpluggable-cpus`` for additional details.
``acl_show``, ``acl_reset``, ``acl_policy``, ``acl_add``, ``acl_remove`` (since 4.0.0)
The ``acl_show``, ``acl_reset``, ``acl_policy``, ``acl_add``, and
``acl_remove`` commands are deprecated with no replacement. Authorization
for VNC should be performed using the pluggable QAuthZ objects.
Guest Emulator ISAs
RISC-V ISA privledge specification version 1.09.1 (since 4.1)
The RISC-V ISA privledge specification version 1.09.1 has been deprecated.
QEMU supports both the newer version 1.10.0 and the ratified version 1.11.0, these
should be used instead of the 1.09.1 version.
System emulator CPUS
RISC-V ISA CPUs (since 4.1)
The RISC-V cpus with the ISA version in the CPU name have been depcreated. The
four CPUs are: ``rv32gcsu-v1.9.1``, ``rv32gcsu-v1.10.0``, ``rv64gcsu-v1.9.1`` and
``rv64gcsu-v1.10.0``. Instead the version can be specified via the CPU ``priv_spec``
option when using the ``rv32`` or ``rv64`` CPUs.
RISC-V ISA CPUs (since 4.1)
The RISC-V no MMU cpus have been depcreated. The two CPUs: ``rv32imacu-nommu`` and
``rv64imacu-nommu`` should no longer be used. Instead the MMU status can be specified
via the CPU ``mmu`` option when using the ``rv32`` or ``rv64`` CPUs.
``compat`` property of server class POWER CPUs (since 5.0)
The ``compat`` property used to set backwards compatibility modes for
the processor has been deprecated. The ``max-cpu-compat`` property of
the ``pseries`` machine type should be used instead.
System emulator devices
``ide-drive`` (since 4.2)
The 'ide-drive' device is deprecated. Users should use 'ide-hd' or
'ide-cd' as appropriate to get an IDE hard disk or CD-ROM as needed.
``scsi-disk`` (since 4.2)
The 'scsi-disk' device is deprecated. Users should use 'scsi-hd' or
'scsi-cd' as appropriate to get a SCSI hard disk or CD-ROM as needed.
System emulator machines
mips ``r4k`` platform (since 5.0)
This machine type is very old and unmaintained. Users should use the ``malta``
machine type instead.
``pc-1.0``, ``pc-1.1``, ``pc-1.2`` and ``pc-1.3`` (since 5.0)
These machine types are very old and likely can not be used for live migration
from old QEMU versions anymore. A newer machine type should be used instead.
``spike_v1.9.1`` and ``spike_v1.10`` (since 4.1)
The version specific Spike machines have been deprecated in favour of the
generic ``spike`` machine. If you need to specify an older version of the RISC-V
spec you can use the ``-cpu rv64gcsu,priv_spec=v1.9.1`` command line argument.
Device options
Emulated device options
``-device virtio-blk,scsi=on|off`` (since 5.0.0)
The virtio-blk SCSI passthrough feature is a legacy VIRTIO feature. VIRTIO 1.0
and later do not support it because the virtio-scsi device was introduced for
full SCSI support. Use virtio-scsi instead when SCSI passthrough is required.
Note this also applies to ``-device virtio-blk-pci,scsi=on|off``, which is an
Block device options
``"backing": ""`` (since 2.12.0)
In order to prevent QEMU from automatically opening an image's backing
chain, use ``"backing": null`` instead.
``rbd`` keyvalue pair encoded filenames: ``""`` (since 3.1.0)
Options for ``rbd`` should be specified according to its runtime options,
like other block drivers. Legacy parsing of keyvalue pair encoded
filenames is useful to open images with the old format for backing files;
These image files should be updated to use the current format.
Example of legacy encoding::
json:{"file.driver":"rbd", "file.filename":"rbd:rbd/name"}
The above, converted to the current supported format::
json:{"file.driver":"rbd", "file.pool":"rbd", "file.image":"name"}
Related binaries
``qemu-img convert -n -o`` (since 4.2.0)
All options specified in ``-o`` are image creation options, so
they have no effect when used with ``-n`` to skip image creation.
Silently ignored options can be confusing, so this combination of
options will be made an error in future versions.
Backwards compatibility
Runnability guarantee of CPU models (since 4.1.0)
Previous versions of QEMU never changed existing CPU models in
ways that introduced additional host software or hardware
requirements to the VM. This allowed management software to
safely change the machine type of an existing VM without
introducing new requirements ("runnability guarantee"). This
prevented CPU models from being updated to include CPU
vulnerability mitigations, leaving guests vulnerable in the
default configuration.
The CPU model runnability guarantee won't apply anymore to
existing CPU models. Management software that needs runnability
guarantees must resolve the CPU model aliases using te
``alias-of`` field returned by the ``query-cpu-definitions`` QMP
While those guarantees are kept, the return value of
``query-cpu-definitions`` will have existing CPU model aliases
point to a version that doesn't break runnability guarantees
(specifically, version 1 of those CPU models). In future QEMU
versions, aliases will point to newer CPU model versions
depending on the machine type, so management software must
resolve CPU model aliases before starting a virtual machine.
Recently removed features
What follows is a record of recently removed, formerly deprecated
features that serves as a record for users who have encountered
trouble after a recent upgrade.
QEMU Machine Protocol (QMP) commands
``block-dirty-bitmap-add`` "autoload" parameter (since 4.2.0)
The "autoload" parameter has been ignored since 2.12.0. All bitmaps
are automatically loaded from qcow2 images.
Human Monitor Protocol (HMP) commands
The ``hub_id`` parameter of ``hostfwd_add`` / ``hostfwd_remove`` (removed in 5.0)
The ``[hub_id name]`` parameter tuple of the 'hostfwd_add' and
'hostfwd_remove' HMP commands has been replaced by ``netdev_id``.
Related binaries
``qemu-nbd --partition`` (removed in 5.0.0)
The ``qemu-nbd --partition $digit`` code (also spelled ``-P``)
could only handle MBR partitions, and never correctly handled logical
partitions beyond partition 5. Exporting a partition can still be
done by utilizing the ``--image-opts`` option with a raw blockdev
using the ``offset`` and ``size`` parameters layered on top of
any other existing blockdev. For example, if partition 1 is 100MiB
long starting at 1MiB, the old command::
qemu-nbd -t -P 1 -f qcow2 file.qcow2
can be rewritten as::
qemu-nbd -t --image-opts driver=raw,offset=1M,size=100M,file.driver=qcow2,file.file.driver=file,file.file.filename=file.qcow2