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Reset in QEMU: the Resettable interface
The reset of qemu objects is handled using the resettable interface declared
in ``include/hw/resettable.h``.
This interface allows objects to be grouped (on a tree basis); so that the
whole group can be reset consistently. Each individual member object does not
have to care about others; in particular, problems of order (which object is
reset first) are addressed.
As of now DeviceClass and BusClass implement this interface.
Triggering reset
This section documents the APIs which "users" of a resettable object should use
to control it. All resettable control functions must be called while holding
the iothread lock.
You can apply a reset to an object using ``resettable_assert_reset()``. You need
to call ``resettable_release_reset()`` to release the object from reset. To
instantly reset an object, without keeping it in reset state, just call
``resettable_reset()``. These functions take two parameters: a pointer to the
object to reset and a reset type.
Several types of reset will be supported. For now only cold reset is defined;
others may be added later. The Resettable interface handles reset types with an
Cold reset is supported by every resettable object. In QEMU, it means we reset
to the initial state corresponding to the start of QEMU; this might differ
from what is a real hardware cold reset. It differs from other resets (like
warm or bus resets) which may keep certain parts untouched.
Calling ``resettable_reset()`` is equivalent to calling
``resettable_assert_reset()`` then ``resettable_release_reset()``. It is
possible to interleave multiple calls to these three functions. There may
be several reset sources/controllers of a given object. The interface handles
everything and the different reset controllers do not need to know anything
about each others. The object will leave reset state only when each other
controllers end their reset operation. This point is handled internally by
maintaining a count of in-progress resets; it is crucial to call
``resettable_release_reset()`` one time and only one time per
``resettable_assert_reset()`` call.
For now migration of a device or bus in reset is not supported. Care must be
taken not to delay ``resettable_release_reset()`` after its
``resettable_assert_reset()`` counterpart.
Note that, since resettable is an interface, the API takes a simple Object as
parameter. Still, it is a programming error to call a resettable function on a
non-resettable object and it will trigger a run time assert error. Since most
calls to resettable interface are done through base class functions, such an
error is not likely to happen.
For Devices and Buses, the following helper functions exist:
- ``device_cold_reset()``
- ``bus_cold_reset()``
These are simple wrappers around resettable_reset() function; they only cast the
Device or Bus into an Object and pass the cold reset type. When possible
prefer to use these functions instead of ``resettable_reset()``.
Device and bus functions co-exist because there can be semantic differences
between resetting a bus and resetting the controller bridge which owns it.
For example, consider a SCSI controller. Resetting the controller puts all
its registers back to what reset state was as well as reset everything on the
SCSI bus, whereas resetting just the SCSI bus only resets everything that's on
it but not the controller.
Multi-phase mechanism
This section documents the internals of the resettable interface.
The resettable interface uses a multi-phase system to relieve objects and
machines from reset ordering problems. To address this, the reset operation
of an object is split into three well defined phases.
When resetting several objects (for example the whole machine at simulation
startup), all first phases of all objects are executed, then all second phases
and then all third phases.
The three phases are:
1. The **enter** phase is executed when the object enters reset. It resets only
local state of the object; it must not do anything that has a side-effect
on other objects, such as raising or lowering a qemu_irq line or reading or
writing guest memory.
2. The **hold** phase is executed for entry into reset, once every object in the
group which is being reset has had its *enter* phase executed. At this point
devices can do actions that affect other objects.
3. The **exit** phase is executed when the object leaves the reset state.
Actions affecting other objects are permitted.
As said in previous section, the interface maintains a count of reset. This
count is used to ensure phases are executed only when required. *enter* and
*hold* phases are executed only when asserting reset for the first time
(if an object is already in reset state when calling
``resettable_assert_reset()`` or ``resettable_reset()``, they are not
The *exit* phase is executed only when the last reset operation ends. Therefore
the object does not need to care how many of reset controllers it has and how
many of them have started a reset.
Handling reset in a resettable object
This section documents the APIs that an implementation of a resettable object
must provide and what functions it has access to. It is intended for people
who want to implement or convert a class which has the resettable interface;
for example when specializing an existing device or bus.
Methods to implement
Three methods should be defined or left empty. Each method corresponds to a
phase of the reset; they are name ``phases.enter()``, ``phases.hold()`` and
``phases.exit()``. They all take the object as parameter. The *enter* method
also take the reset type as second parameter.
When extending an existing class, these methods may need to be extended too.
The ``resettable_class_set_parent_phases()`` class function may be used to
backup parent class methods.
Here follows an example to implement reset for a Device which sets an IO while
in reset.
static void mydev_reset_enter(Object *obj, ResetType type)
MyDevClass *myclass = MYDEV_GET_CLASS(obj);
MyDevState *mydev = MYDEV(obj);
/* call parent class enter phase */
if (myclass->parent_phases.enter) {
myclass->parent_phases.enter(obj, type);
/* initialize local state only */
mydev->var = 0;
static void mydev_reset_hold(Object *obj)
MyDevClass *myclass = MYDEV_GET_CLASS(obj);
MyDevState *mydev = MYDEV(obj);
/* call parent class hold phase */
if (myclass->parent_phases.hold) {
/* set an IO */
qemu_set_irq(mydev->irq, 1);
static void mydev_reset_exit(Object *obj)
MyDevClass *myclass = MYDEV_GET_CLASS(obj);
MyDevState *mydev = MYDEV(obj);
/* call parent class exit phase */
if (myclass->parent_phases.exit) {
/* clear an IO */
qemu_set_irq(mydev->irq, 0);
typedef struct MyDevClass {
MyParentClass parent_class;
/* to store eventual parent reset methods */
ResettablePhases parent_phases;
} MyDevClass;
static void mydev_class_init(ObjectClass *class, void *data)
MyDevClass *myclass = MYDEV_CLASS(class);
ResettableClass *rc = RESETTABLE_CLASS(class);
In the above example, we override all three phases. It is possible to override
only some of them by passing NULL instead of a function pointer to
``resettable_class_set_parent_reset_phases()``. For example, the following will
only override the *enter* phase and leave *hold* and *exit* untouched::
resettable_class_set_parent_reset_phases(rc, mydev_reset_enter,
This is equivalent to providing a trivial implementation of the hold and exit
phases which does nothing but call the parent class's implementation of the
Polling the reset state
Resettable interface provides the ``resettable_is_in_reset()`` function.
This function returns true if the object parameter is currently under reset.
An object is under reset from the beginning of the *init* phase to the end of
the *exit* phase. During all three phases, the function will return that the
object is in reset.
This function may be used if the object behavior has to be adapted
while in reset state. For example if a device has an irq input,
it will probably need to ignore it while in reset; then it can for
example check the reset state at the beginning of the irq callback.
Note that until migration of the reset state is supported, an object
should not be left in reset. So apart from being currently executing
one of the reset phases, the only cases when this function will return
true is if an external interaction (like changing an io) is made during
*hold* or *exit* phase of another object in the same reset group.
Helpers ``device_is_in_reset()`` and ``bus_is_in_reset()`` are also provided
for devices and buses and should be preferred.
Base class handling of reset
This section documents parts of the reset mechanism that you only need to know
about if you are extending it to work with a new base class other than
DeviceClass or BusClass, or maintaining the existing code in those classes. Most
people can ignore it.
Methods to implement
There are two other methods that need to exist in a class implementing the
interface: ``get_state()`` and ``child_foreach()``.
``get_state()`` is simple. *resettable* is an interface and, as a consequence,
does not have any class state structure. But in order to factorize the code, we
need one. This method must return a pointer to ``ResettableState`` structure.
The structure must be allocated by the base class; preferably it should be
located inside the object instance structure.
``child_foreach()`` is more complex. It should execute the given callback on
every reset child of the given resettable object. All children must be
resettable too. Additional parameters (a reset type and an opaque pointer) must
be passed to the callback too.
In ``DeviceClass`` and ``BusClass`` the ``ResettableState`` is located
``DeviceState`` and ``BusState`` structure. ``child_foreach()`` is implemented
to follow the bus hierarchy; for a bus, it calls the function on every child
device; for a device, it calls the function on every bus child. When we reset
the main system bus, we reset the whole machine bus tree.
Changing a resettable parent
One thing which should be taken care of by the base class is handling reset
hierarchy changes.
The reset hierarchy is supposed to be static and built during machine creation.
But there are actually some exceptions. To cope with this, the resettable API
provides ``resettable_change_parent()``. This function allows to set, update or
remove the parent of a resettable object after machine creation is done. As
parameters, it takes the object being moved, the old parent if any and the new
parent if any.
This function can be used at any time when not in a reset operation. During
a reset operation it must be used only in *hold* phase. Using it in *enter* or
*exit* phase is an error.
Also it should not be used during machine creation, although it is harmless to
do so: the function is a no-op as long as old and new parent are NULL or not
in reset.
There is currently 2 cases where this function is used:
1. *device hotplug*; it means a new device is introduced on a live bus.
2. *hot bus change*; it means an existing live device is added, moved or
removed in the bus hierarchy. At the moment, it occurs only in the raspi
machines for changing the sdbus used by sd card.