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.. _caching_toplevel:
Any template or component can be cached using the ``cache``
argument to the ``<%page>``, ``<%def>`` or ``<%block>`` directives:
.. sourcecode:: mako
<%page cached="True"/>
template text
The above template, after being executed the first time, will
store its content within a cache that by default is scoped
within memory. Subsequent calls to the template's :meth:`~.Template.render`
method will return content directly from the cache. When the
:class:`.Template` object itself falls out of scope, its corresponding
cache is garbage collected along with the template.
The caching system requires that a cache backend be installed; this
includes either the `Beaker <>`_ package
or the `dogpile.cache <>`_, as well as
any other third-party caching libraries that feature Mako integration.
By default, caching will attempt to make use of Beaker.
To use dogpile.cache, the
``cache_impl`` argument must be set; see this argument in the
section :ref:`cache_arguments`.
In addition to being available on the ``<%page>`` tag, the caching flag and all
its options can be used with the ``<%def>`` tag as well:
.. sourcecode:: mako
<%def name="mycomp" cached="True" cache_timeout="60">
other text
... and equivalently with the ``<%block>`` tag, anonymous or named:
.. sourcecode:: mako
<%block cached="True" cache_timeout="60">
other text
.. _cache_arguments:
Cache Arguments
Mako has two cache arguments available on tags that are
available in all cases. The rest of the arguments
available are specific to a backend.
The two generic tags arguments are:
* ``cached="True"`` - enable caching for this ``<%page>``,
``<%def>``, or ``<%block>``.
* ``cache_key`` - the "key" used to uniquely identify this content
in the cache. Usually, this key is chosen automatically
based on the name of the rendering callable (i.e. ``body``
when used in ``<%page>``, the name of the def when using ``<%def>``,
the explicit or internally-generated name when using ``<%block>``).
Using the ``cache_key`` parameter, the key can be overridden
using a fixed or programmatically generated value.
For example, here's a page
that caches any page which inherits from it, based on the
filename of the calling template:
.. sourcecode:: mako
<%page cached="True" cache_key="${self.filename}"/>
## rest of template
On a :class:`.Template` or :class:`.TemplateLookup`, the
caching can be configured using these arguments:
* ``cache_enabled`` - Setting this
to ``False`` will disable all caching functionality
when the template renders. Defaults to ``True``.
.. sourcecode:: python
lookup = TemplateLookup(
cache_enabled = False
* ``cache_impl`` - The string name of the cache backend
to use. This defaults to ``'beaker'``, indicating
that the 'beaker' backend will be used.
* ``cache_args`` - A dictionary of cache parameters that
will be consumed by the cache backend. See
:ref:`beaker_backend` and :ref:`dogpile.cache_backend` for examples.
Backend-Specific Cache Arguments
The ``<%page>``, ``<%def>``, and ``<%block>`` tags
accept any named argument that starts with the prefix ``"cache_"``.
Those arguments are then packaged up and passed along to the
underlying caching implementation, minus the ``"cache_"`` prefix.
The actual arguments understood are determined by the backend.
* :ref:`beaker_backend` - Includes arguments understood by
* :ref:`dogpile.cache_backend` - Includes arguments understood by
.. _beaker_backend:
Using the Beaker Cache Backend
When using Beaker, new implementations will want to make usage
of **cache regions** so that cache configurations can be maintained
externally to templates. These configurations live under
named "regions" that can be referred to within templates themselves.
.. versionadded:: 0.6.0
Support for Beaker cache regions.
For example, suppose we would like two regions. One is a "short term"
region that will store content in a memory-based dictionary,
expiring after 60 seconds. The other is a Memcached region,
where values should expire in five minutes. To configure
our :class:`.TemplateLookup`, first we get a handle to a
.. sourcecode:: python
from beaker.cache import CacheManager
manager = CacheManager(cache_regions={
'type': 'memory',
'expire': 60
'type': 'ext:memcached',
'url': '',
'expire': 300
lookup = TemplateLookup(
Our templates can then opt to cache data in one of either region,
using the ``cache_region`` argument. Such as using ``short_term``
at the ``<%page>`` level:
.. sourcecode:: mako
<%page cached="True" cache_region="short_term">
## ...
Or, ``long_term`` at the ``<%block>`` level:
.. sourcecode:: mako
<%block name="header" cached="True" cache_region="long_term">
other text
The Beaker backend also works without regions. There are a
variety of arguments that can be passed to the ``cache_args``
dictionary, which are also allowable in templates via the
``<%page>``, ``<%block>``,
and ``<%def>`` tags specific to those sections. The values
given override those specified at the :class:`.TemplateLookup`
or :class:`.Template` level.
With the possible exception
of ``cache_timeout``, these arguments are probably better off
staying at the template configuration level. Each argument
specified as ``cache_XYZ`` in a template tag is specified
without the ``cache_`` prefix in the ``cache_args`` dictionary:
* ``cache_timeout`` - number of seconds in which to invalidate the
cached data. After this timeout, the content is re-generated
on the next call. Available as ``timeout`` in the ``cache_args``
* ``cache_type`` - type of caching. ``'memory'``, ``'file'``, ``'dbm'``, or
``'ext:memcached'`` (note that the string ``memcached`` is
also accepted by the dogpile.cache Mako plugin, though not by Beaker itself).
Available as ``type`` in the ``cache_args`` dictionary.
* ``cache_url`` - (only used for ``memcached`` but required) a single
IP address or a semi-colon separated list of IP address of
memcache servers to use. Available as ``url`` in the ``cache_args``
* ``cache_dir`` - in the case of the ``'file'`` and ``'dbm'`` cache types,
this is the filesystem directory with which to store data
files. If this option is not present, the value of
``module_directory`` is used (i.e. the directory where compiled
template modules are stored). If neither option is available
an exception is thrown. Available as ``dir`` in the
``cache_args`` dictionary.
.. _dogpile.cache_backend:
Using the dogpile.cache Backend
`dogpile.cache`_ is a new replacement for Beaker. It provides
a modernized, slimmed down interface and is generally easier to use
than Beaker. As of this writing it has not yet been released. dogpile.cache
includes its own Mako cache plugin -- see :mod:`dogpile.cache.plugins.mako_cache` in the
dogpile.cache documentation.
Programmatic Cache Access
The :class:`.Template`, as well as any template-derived :class:`.Namespace`, has
an accessor called ``cache`` which returns the :class:`.Cache` object
for that template. This object is a facade on top of the underlying
:class:`.CacheImpl` object, and provides some very rudimental
capabilities, such as the ability to get and put arbitrary
.. sourcecode:: mako
local.cache.set("somekey", type="memory", "somevalue")
Above, the cache associated with the ``local`` namespace is
accessed and a key is placed within a memory cache.
More commonly, the ``cache`` object is used to invalidate cached
sections programmatically:
.. sourcecode:: python
template = lookup.get_template('/sometemplate.html')
# invalidate the "body" of the template
# invalidate an individual def
# invalidate an arbitrary key
You can access any special method or attribute of the :class:`.CacheImpl`
itself using the :attr:`impl <.Cache.impl>` attribute:
.. sourcecode:: python
Note that using implementation-specific methods will mean you can't
swap in a different kind of :class:`.CacheImpl` implementation at a
later time.
.. _cache_plugins:
Cache Plugins
The mechanism used by caching can be plugged in
using a :class:`.CacheImpl` subclass. This class implements
the rudimental methods Mako needs to implement the caching
API. Mako includes the :class:`.BeakerCacheImpl` class to
provide the default implementation. A :class:`.CacheImpl` class
is acquired by Mako using a ``pkg_resources`` entrypoint, using
the name given as the ``cache_impl`` argument to :class:`.Template`
or :class:`.TemplateLookup`. This entry point can be
installed via the standard `setuptools`/``setup()`` procedure, underneath
the `EntryPoint` group named ``"mako.cache"``. It can also be
installed at runtime via a convenience installer :func:`.register_plugin`
which accomplishes essentially the same task.
An example plugin that implements a local dictionary cache:
.. sourcecode:: python
from mako.cache import Cacheimpl, register_plugin
class SimpleCacheImpl(CacheImpl):
def __init__(self, cache):
super(SimpleCacheImpl, self).__init__(cache)
self._cache = {}
def get_or_create(self, key, creation_function, **kw):
if key in self._cache:
return self._cache[key]
self._cache[key] = value = creation_function()
return value
def set(self, key, value, **kwargs):
self._cache[key] = value
def get(self, key, **kwargs):
return self._cache.get(key)
def invalidate(self, key, **kwargs):
self._cache.pop(key, None)
# optional - register the class locally
register_plugin("simple", __name__, "SimpleCacheImpl")
Enabling the above plugin in a template would look like:
.. sourcecode:: python
t = Template("mytemplate",
Guidelines for Writing Cache Plugins
* The :class:`.CacheImpl` is created on a per-:class:`.Template` basis. The
class should ensure that only data for the parent :class:`.Template` is
persisted or returned by the cache methods. The actual :class:`.Template`
is available via the ``self.cache.template`` attribute. The ````
attribute, which is essentially the unique modulename of the template, is
a good value to use in order to represent a unique namespace of keys specific
to the template.
* Templates only use the :meth:`.CacheImpl.get_or_create()` method
in an implicit fashion. The :meth:`.CacheImpl.set`,
:meth:`.CacheImpl.get`, and :meth:`.CacheImpl.invalidate` methods are
only used in response to direct programmatic access to the corresponding
methods on the :class:`.Cache` object.
* :class:`.CacheImpl` will be accessed in a multithreaded fashion if the
:class:`.Template` itself is used multithreaded. Care should be taken
to ensure caching implementations are threadsafe.
* A library like `Dogpile <>`_, which
is a minimal locking system derived from Beaker, can be used to help
implement the :meth:`.CacheImpl.get_or_create` method in a threadsafe
way that can maximize effectiveness across multiple threads as well
as processes. :meth:`.CacheImpl.get_or_create` is the
key method used by templates.
* All arguments passed to ``**kw`` come directly from the parameters
inside the ``<%def>``, ``<%block>``, or ``<%page>`` tags directly,
minus the ``"cache_"`` prefix, as strings, with the exception of
the argument ``cache_timeout``, which is passed to the plugin
as the name ``timeout`` with the value converted to an integer.
Arguments present in ``cache_args`` on :class:`.Template` or
:class:`.TemplateLookup` are passed directly, but are superseded
by those present in the most specific template tag.
* The directory where :class:`.Template` places module files can
be acquired using the accessor ``self.cache.template.module_directory``.
This directory can be a good place to throw cache-related work
files, underneath a prefix like ``_my_cache_work`` so that name
conflicts with generated modules don't occur.
API Reference
.. autoclass:: mako.cache.Cache
.. autoclass:: mako.cache.CacheImpl
.. autofunction:: mako.cache.register_plugin
.. autoclass:: mako.ext.beaker_cache.BeakerCacheImpl