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Overview: -*-text-mode-*-
This version of GNU make has been tested on:
OpenVMS V8.3/V8.4 (Alpha) and V8.4 (Integrity) AND V7.3 (VAX)
This version of GNU Make is intended to be run from DCL to run
make scripts with a special syntax that is described below. It
likely will not be able to run unmodified Unix makefiles.
There is an older implementation of GNU Make that was ported to GNV.
Work is now in progress to merge that port to get a single version
of GNU Make available. When that merge is done, GNU Make will auto
detect that it is running under a Posix shell and then operate as close to
GNU Make on Unix as possible.
The descriptions below are for running GNU make from DCL or equivalent.
Recipe differences:
GNU Make for OpenVMS can not currently run native Unix make files because of
differences in the implementation.
I am trying to document the current behavior in this section. This is based
on the information in the file NEWS. and running the test suite.
TODO: More tests are needed to validate and demonstrate the OpenVMS
expected behavior.
In some cases the older behavior of GNU Make when run from DCL is not
compatible with standard makefile behavior.
This behavior can be changed when running GNU Make from DCL by setting
either DCL symbols or logical names of the format GNV$. The settings
are enabled with a string starting with one of '1', 'T', or 'E' for "1",
"TRUE", or "ENABLE". They are disabled with a '0', 'F', or 'D' for "1",
"FALSE", or "DISABLE". If they are not explicitly set to one of these
values, then they will be set to their default values.
The value of the setting DECC$FILENAME_UNIX_REPORT or
DECC$FILENAME_UNIX_ONLY will now cause the $(dir x) function to return
'./' or '[]' as appropriate.
The name GNV$MAKE_OLD_VMS when enabled will cause GNU Make to behave as
much as the older method as can be done with out disabling VMS features.
When it is disabled GNU Make have the new behavior which more closely
matches Unix Make behavior.
The default is currently the old behavior when running GNU Make from DCL.
In the future this may change. When running make from GNV Bash the new
behavior is the default.
This is a global setting that sets the default behavior for several other
options that can be individually changed. Many of the individual settings
are to make it so that the self tests for GNU Make need less VMS specific
The name GNV$MAKE_COMMA when enabled will cause GNU Make to expect a comma
for a path separator and use a comma for the separator for a list of files.
When disabled, it will cause GNU Make to use a colon for a path separator
and a space for the separator for a list of files. The default is to be
enabled if the GNU Make is set to the older behavior.
The name GNV$MAKE_SHELL_SIM when enabled will cause GNU Make to try to
simulate a Posix shell more closely. The following behaviors occur:
* Single quotes are converted to double quotes and any double
quotes inside of them are doubled. No environment variable expansion
is simulated.
* A exit command status will be converted to a Posix Exit
where 0 is success and non-zero is failure.
* The $ character will cause environment variable expansion.
* Environent variables can be set on the command line before a command.
VMS generally uses logical name search lists instead of path variables
where the resolution is handled by VMS independent of the program. Which
means that it is likely that nothing will notice if the default path
specifier is changed in the future.
Currently the built in VMS specific macros and recipes depend on the comma
being used as a file list separator.
TODO: Remove this dependency as other functions in GNU Make depend on a
space being used as a separator.
The format for recipes are a combination of Unix macros, a subset of
simulated UNIX commands, some shell emulation, and OpenVMS commands.
This makes the resulting makefiles unique to the OpenVMS port of GNU make.
If you are creating a OpenVMS specific makefile from scratch, you should also
look at MMK (Madgoat Make) available at
MMK uses full OpenVMS syntax and a persistent subprocess is used for the
recipe lines, allowing multiple line rules.
The default makefile search order is "makefile.vms", "gnumakefile",
"makefile". TODO: See if that lookup is case sensitive.
When Make is invoked from DCL, it will create a foreign command
using the name of executable image, with any facility prefix removed,
for the duration of the make program, so it can be used internally
to recursively run make(). The macro MAKE_COMMAND will be set to
this foreign command.
When make is launched from an exec*() command from a C program,
the foreign command is not created. The macro MAKE_COMMAND will be
set to the actual command passed as argv[0] to the exec*() function.
If the DCL symbol or logical name GNV$MAKE_USE_MCR exists, then
the macro MAKE_COMMAND will be set to be an "MCR" command with the
absolute path used by DCL to launch make. The foreign command
will not be created.
The macro MAKE is set to be the same value as the macro MAKE_COMMAND
on all platforms.
Each recipe command is normally run as a separate spawned processes,
except for the cases documented below where a temporary DCL command
file may be used.
BUG: Testing has shown that the commands in the temporary command files
are not always created properly. This issue is still under investigation.
Any macros marked as exported are temporarily created as DCL symbols
for child images to use. DCL symbol substitution is not done with these
Untested: Symbol substitution.
When a temporary DCL command file is used, DCL symbol substitution
will work.
For VMS 7.3-1 and earlier, command lines are limited to 255 characters
or 1024 characters in a command file.
For VMS 7.3-2 and later, command lines are limited to 4059 characters
or 8192 characters in a command file.
VMS limits each token of a command line to 256 characters, and limits
a command line to 127 tokens.
Command lines above the limit length are written to a command file
in sys$scratch:.
In order to handle Unix style extensions to VMS DCL, GNU Make has
parsed the recipe commands and them modified them as needed. The
parser has been re-written to resolve numerous bugs in handling
valid VMS syntax and potential buffer overruns.
The new parser may need whitespace characters where DCL does not require
it, and also may require that quotes are matched were DCL forgives if
they are not. There is a small chance that existing VMS specific makefiles
will be affected.
The '<', '>' was previously implemented using command files. Now
GNU Make will check to see if the is already a VMS "PIPE" command and
if it is not, will convert the command to a VMS "PIPE" command.
The '>>' redirection has been implemented by using a temporary command file.
This will be described later.
The DCL symbol or logical name GNV$MAKE_USE_CMD_FILE when set to a
string starting with one of '1','T', or 'E' for "1", "TRUE", or "ENABLE",
then temporary DCL command files are always used for running commands.
Some recipe strings with embedded new lines will not be handled correctly
when a command file is used.
GNU Make generally does text comparisons for the targets and sources. The
make program itself can handle either Unix or OpenVMS format filenames, but
normally does not do any conversions from one format to another.
TODO: The OpenVMS format syntax handling is incomplete.
TODO: ODS-5 EFS support is missing.
BUG: The internal routines to convert filenames to and from OpenVMS format
do not work correctly.
Note: In the examples below, line continuations such as a backslash may have
been added to make the examples easier to read in this format.
BUG: That feature does not completely work at this time.
Since the OpenVMS utilities generally expect OpenVMS format paths, you will
usually have to use OpenVMS format paths for rules and targets.
BUG: Relative OpenVMS paths may not work in targets, especially combined
with vpaths. This is because GNU make will just concatenate the directories
as it does on Unix.
The variables $^ and $@ separate files with commas instead of spaces.
This is controlled by the name GNV$MAKE_COMMA as documented in the
previous section.
While this may seem the natural thing to do with OpenVMS, it actually
causes problems when trying to use other make functions that expect the
files to be separated by spaces. If you run into this, you need the
following workaround to convert the output.
TODO: Look at have the $^ and $@ use spaces like on Unix and have
and easy to use function to do the conversions and have the built
in OpenVMS specific recipes and macros use it.
comma := ,
empty :=
space := $(empty) $(empty)
foo: $(addsuffix .3,$(subs $(comma),$(space),$^)
Makefile variables are looked up in the current environment. You can set
symbols or logicals in DCL and evaluate them in the Makefile via
$(<name-of-symbol-or-logical>). Variables defined in the Makefile
override OpenVMS symbols/logicals.
OpenVMS logical and symbols names show up as "environment" using the
origin function. when the "-e" option is specified, the origion function
shows them as "environment override". On Posix the test scripts indicate
that they should show up just as "environment".
When GNU make reads in a symbol or logical name into the environment, it
converts any dollar signs found to double dollar signs for convenience in
using DCL symbols and logical names in recipes. When GNU make exports a
DCL symbol for a child process, if the first dollar sign found is followed
by second dollar sign, then all double dollar signs will be convirted to
single dollar signs.
The variable $(ARCH) is predefined as IA64, ALPHA or VAX respectively.
Makefiles for different OpenVMS systems can now be written by checking
$(ARCH). Since IA64 and ALPHA are similar, usually just a check for
VAX or not VAX is sufficient.
You may have to update makefiles that assume VAX if not ALPHA.
ifeq ($(ARCH),VAX)
$(ECHO) "On the VAX"
$(ECHO) "On the ALPHA or IA64"
Empty commands are handled correctly and don't end in a new DCL process.
The exit command needs to have OpenVMS exit codes. To pass a Posix code
back to the make script, you need to encode it by multiplying it by 8
and then adding %x1035a002 for a failure code and %x1035a001 for a
success. Make will interpret any posix code other than 0 as a failure.
TODO: Add an option have simulate Posix exit commands in recipes.
Lexical functions can be used in pipes to simulate shell file test rules.
b : c ; [ -f $@ ] || echo >> $@
b : c ; if f$$search("$@") then pipe open/append xx $@ ; write xx "" ; close xx
You can also use pipes and turning messages off to silently test for a
x = %x1035a00a
%.b : %.c
<tab>pipe set mess/nofac/noiden/nosev/notext ; type $^/output=$@ || exit $(x)
Runtime issues:
The OpenVMS C Runtime has a convention for encoding a Posix exit status into
to OpenVMS exit codes. These status codes will have the hex value of
0x35a000. OpenVMS exit code may also have a hex value of %x10000000 set on
them. This is a flag to tell DCL not to write out the exit code.
To convert an OpenVMS encoded Posix exit status code to the original code
You subtract %x35a000 and any flags from the OpenVMS code and divide it by 8.
WARNING: Backward-incompatibility!
The make program exit now returns the same encoded Posix exit code as on
Unix. Previous versions returned the OpenVMS exit status code if that is what
caused the recipe to fail.
TODO: Provide a way for scripts calling make to obtain that OpenVMS status
Make internally has two error codes, MAKE_FAILURE and MAKE_TROUBLE. These
will have the error "-E-" severity set on exit.
MAKE_TROUBLE is returned only if the option "-q" or "--question" is used and
has a Posix value of 1 and an OpenVMS status of %x1035a00a.
MAKE_FAILURE has a Posix value of 2 and an OpenVMS status of %x1035a012.
Output from GNU make may have single quotes around some values where on
other platforms it does not. Also output that would be in double quotes
on some platforms may show up as single quotes on VMS.
There may be extra blank lines in the output on VMS.
There may be a "Waiting for unfinished jobs..." show up in the output.
Error messages generated by Make or Unix utilities may slightly vary from
Posix platforms. Typically the case may be different.
When make deletes files, on posix platforms it writes out 'rm' and the list
of files. On VMS, only the files are writen out, one per line.
There may be extra leading white space or additional or missing whitespace
in the output of recipes.
GNU Make uses sys$scratch: for the tempfiles that it creates.
The OpenVMS CRTL library maps /tmp to sys$scratch if the TMP: logical name
does not exist. As the CRTL may use both sys$scratch: and /tmp internally,
if you define the TMP logical name to be different than SYS$SCRATCH:,
you may end up with only some temporary files in TMP: and some in SYS$SCRATCH:
The default include directory for including other makefiles is
SYS$SYSROOT:[SYSLIB] (I don't remember why I didn't just use
SYS$LIBRARY: instead; maybe it wouldn't work that way).
TODO: A better default may be desired.
If the device for a file in a recipe does not exist, on OpenVMS an error
message of "stat: <file>: no such device or address" will be output.
Make ignores success, informational, or warning errors (-S-, -I-, or
-W-). But it will stop on -E- and -F- errors. (unless you do something
to override this in your makefile, or whatever).
Unix compatibilty features:
If the command 'echo' is seen, any single quotes on the line will be
converted to double quotes.
The variable $(CD) is implemented as a built in Change Directory
command. This invokes the 'builtin_cd' Executing a 'set default'
recipe doesn't do the trick, since it only affects the subprocess
spawned for that command.
The 'builtin_cd' is generally expected to be on its own line.
The 'builtin_cd' either from the expansion of $(CD) or directly
put in a recipe line will be executed before any other commands in
that recipe line. DCL parameter substitution will not work for the
'builtin_cd' command.
Putting a 'builtin_cd' in a pipeline or an IF-THEN line should not be
done because the 'builtin_cd' is always executed
and executed first. The directory change is persistent.
Unix shell style I/O redirection is supported. You can now write lines like:
"<tab>mcr sys$disk:[]program.exe < input.txt > output.txt &> error.txt"
Posix shells have ":" as a null command. These are now handled.
A note on appending the redirected output. A simple mechanism is
implemented to make ">>" work in action lines. In OpenVMS there is no simple
feature like ">>" to have DCL command or program output redirected and
appended to a file. GNU make for OpenVMS implements the redirection
of ">>" by using a command procedure.
The current algorithm creates the output file if it does not exist and
then uses the DCL open/append to extend it. SYS$OUTPUT is then directed
to that file.
The implementation supports only one redirected append output to a file
and that redirection is done before any other commands in that line
are executed, so it redirects all output for that command.
The older implementation wrote the output to a temporary file in
in sys$scratch: and then attempted to append the file to the existing file.
The temporary file names looked like "CMDxxxxx.". Any time the created
command procedure can not complete, this happens. Pressing Ctrl+Y to
abort make is one case.
In case of Ctrl+Y the associated command procedure is left in SYS$SCRATCH:.
The command procedures will be named gnv$make_cmd*.com.
The CtrlY handler now uses $delprc to delete all children. This way also
actions with DCL commands will be stopped. As before the CtrlY handler
then sends SIGQUIT to itself, which is handled in common code.
Temporary command files are now deleted in the OpenVMS child termination
handler. That deletes them even if a Ctrl+C was pressed.
TODO: Does the previous section about >> leaving files still apply?
The behavior of pressing Ctrl+C is not changed. It still has only an effect,
after the current action is terminated. If that doesn't happen or takes too
long, Ctrl+Y should be used instead.
Build Options:
Added support to have case sensitive targets and dependencies but to
still use case blind file names. This is especially useful for Java
makefiles on VMS:
<TAB>.SUFFIXES : .class .java
<TAB>.java.class :
<TAB><TAB>javac "$<"
<TAB>HelloWorld.class :
A new macro WANT_CASE_SENSITIVE_TARGETS in config.h-vms was introduced.
It needs to be enabled to get this feature; default is disabled.
TODO: This should be a run-time setting based on if the process
has been set to case sensitive.
Unimplemented functionality:
The new feature "Loadable objects" is not yet supported. If you need it,
please send a change request or submit a bug report.
The new option --output-sync (-O) is accepted but has no effect: GNU make
for OpenVMS does not support running multiple commands simultaneously.
Self test failures and todos:
The test harness can not handle testing some of the VMS specific modes
because of the features needed for to be set for the Perl to run.
Need to find a way to set the VMS features before running make as a
GNU make was not currently translating the OpenVMS encoded POSIX values
returned to it back to the Posix values. I have temporarily modified the
Perl test script to compensate for it. This should be being handled
internally to Make.
TODO: Verify and update the Perl test script.
The features/parallelism test was failing. OpenVMS is executing the rules
in sequence not in parallel as this feature was not implemented.
GNU Make on VMS no longer claims it is implemented.
TODO: Implement it.
Symlink support is not present. Symlinks are supported by OpenVMS 8.3 and
Error messages should be supressed with the "-" at the beginning of a line.
On openVMS they were showing up. TODO: Is this still an issue?
The internal vmsify and unixify OpenVMS to/from UNIX are not handling logical
names correctly.
Build instructions:
Don't use the HP C V7.2-001 compiler, which has an incompatible change
how __STDC__ is defined. This results at least in compile time warnings.
Make a 1st version
$ ! ignore any compiler and/or linker warning
$ copy make.exe 1st-make.exe
Use the 1st version to generate a 2nd version as a test.
$ mc sys$disk:[]1st-make clean ! ignore any file not found messages
$ mc sys$disk:[]1st-make
Verify your 2nd version by building Make again.
$ copy make.exe 2nd-make.exe
$ mc sys$disk:[]2nd-make clean
$ mc sys$disk:[]2nd-make
Running the tests:
Running the tests on OpenVMS requires the following software to be installed
as most of the tests are Unix oriented.
* Perl 5.18 or later.
* GNV 2.1.3 + Updates including a minimum of:
* Bash 4.3.30
* ld_tools 3.0.2
* coreutils 8.21
As the test scripts need to create some foreign commands that persist
after the test is run, it is recommend that either you use a subprocess or
a dedicated login to run the tests.
To get detailed information for running the tests:
$ set default [.tests]
$ @run_make_tests help
Running the script with no parameters will run all the tests.
After the the test script has been run once in a session, assuming
that you built make in sys$disk:[make], you can redefined the
"bin" logical name as follows:
$ define bin sys$disk:[make],gnv$gnu:[bin]
Then you can use Perl to run the scripts.
$ perl
See NEWS. for details of past changes.
These are the currently known contributers to this port.
Hartmut Becker
John Malmberg
Michael Gehre
John Eisenbraun
Klaus Kaempf
Mike Moretti
John W. Eaton