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Libc++ 16.0.0 (In-Progress) Release Notes
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Written by the `Libc++ Team <>`_
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These are in-progress notes for the upcoming libc++ 16 release.
Release notes for previous releases can be found on
`the Download Page <>`_.
This document contains the release notes for the libc++ C++ Standard Library,
part of the LLVM Compiler Infrastructure, release 16.0.0. Here we describe the
status of libc++ in some detail, including major improvements from the previous
release and new feature work. For the general LLVM release notes, see `the LLVM
documentation <>`_. All LLVM releases may
be downloaded from the `LLVM releases web site <>`_.
For more information about libc++, please see the `Libc++ Web Site
<>`_ or the `LLVM Web Site <>`_.
Note that if you are reading this file from a Git checkout or the
main Libc++ web page, this document applies to the *next* release, not
the current one. To see the release notes for a specific release, please
see the `releases page <>`_.
What's New in Libc++ 16.0.0?
The main focus of the libc++ team has been to implement new C++20 and C++23
The C++20 format library has improved but it not yet considered stable. The
main improvements are additional formatters for the chrono calendar types. Work
on formatting ranges has started.
The C++20 ranges library has been completed and is no longer experimental (with
the exception of `ranges::join_view` which is still marked as experimental
because it is about to undergo an ABI-breaking change in the Standard due to
`D2770 <>`_). Work on C++23 ranges
has started.
The C++20 spaceship operator has been added to more types, the work is still
`D139235 <>`_ made ``copy`` and ``move``
algorithms and their variations (``copy_backward``, etc.) apply optimizations
for trivial types more often. This has the potential to expose bugs in code
using these algorithms that currently relies on undefined behavior (this
includes indirect usage -- for example, these algorithms are used in the
implementation of some standard containers). This change also made the
algorithms check the given iterator types for conformance more strictly.
Implemented Papers
- P2499R0 - ``string_view`` range constructor should be ``explicit``
- P2417R2 - A more constexpr bitset
- P2445R1 - ``std::forward_like``
- P2273R3 - Making ``std::unique_ptr`` constexpr
- P0591R4 - Utility functions to implement uses-allocator construction
- P2291R3 - Add Constexpr Modifiers to Functions ``to_chars`` and
``from_chars`` for Integral Types in ``<charconv>`` Header
- P0220R1 - Adopt Library Fundamentals V1 TS Components for C++17
- P0482R6 - char8_t: A type for UTF-8 characters and strings
- P2438R2 - ``std::string::substr() &&``
- P0600R1 - ``nodiscard`` in the library
- P0339R6 - ``polymorphic_allocator<>`` as a vocabulary type
- P1169R4 - ``static operator()``
- P0415R1 - ``constexpr`` for ``std::complex``
- P1208R6 - ``std::source_location``
- P0323R12 - ``std::expected``
- P1035R7 - Input Range Adaptors
- P2325R3 - Views should not be required to be default constructible
- P2446R2 - ``views::as_rvalue``
- P1020R1 - Smart pointer creation with default initialization
- P2210R2 - Superior String Splitting
- P2286R8 - Formatting Ranges
Improvements and New Features
- Declarations of ``std::c8rtomb()`` and ``std::mbrtoc8()`` from P0482R6 are
now provided when implementations in the global namespace are provided by
the C library.
- Implemented ``<memory_resource>`` header from C++17
- The ``ranges`` versions of ``copy``, ``move``, ``copy_backward`` and ``move_backward`` are now also optimized for
``std::deque<>::iterator``, which can lead to up to 20x performance improvements on certain algorithms.
- The ``std`` and ``ranges`` versions of ``copy``, ``move``, ``copy_backward`` and ``move_backward`` are now also
optimized for ``join_view::iterator``, which can lead to up to 20x performance improvements on certain combinations of
iterators and algorithms.
Deprecations and Removals
- ``unary_function`` and ``binary_function`` are no longer provided in C++17 and newer Standard modes.
- Several incidental transitive includes have been removed from libc++. Those
includes are removed based on the language version used. Incidental transitive
inclusions of the following headers have been removed:
- C++11, C++14, C++17, and C++20: ``chrono``
- C++2b: ``algorithm``, ``array``, ``atomic``, ``bit``, ``chrono``,
``climits``, ``cmath``, ``compare``, ``concepts``, ``cstdarg``, ``cstddef``,
``cstdint``, ``cstdlib``, ``cstring``, ``ctime``, ``exception``,
``functional``, ``initializer_list``, ``iosfwd``, ``iterator``, ``limits``,
``memory``, ``new``, ``numeric``, ``optional``, ``ratio``, ``stdexcept``,
``string``, ``tuple``, ``type_traits``, ``typeinfo``, ``unordered_map``,
``utility``, ``variant``, ``vector``.
Users can also remove all incidental transitive includes by defining
``_LIBCPP_REMOVE_TRANSITIVE_INCLUDES`` regardless of the language version
in use. Note that in the future, libc++ reserves the right to remove
incidental transitive includes more aggressively, in particular regardless
of the language version in use.
- The legacy testing system for libc++, libc++abi, and libunwind has been removed.
All known clients have been migrated to the new configuration system, but please
reach out to the libc++ developers if you find something missing in the new
configuration system.
- The functions ``to_chars`` and ``from_chars`` for integral types are
available starting with C++17. Libc++ offered these functions in C++11 and
C++14 as an undocumented extension. This extension makes it hard to implement
the C++23 paper that makes these functions ``constexpr``, therefore the
extension has been removed.
- The ``_LIBCPP_ENABLE_CXX03_FUNCTION`` macro that allowed re-enabling the now-deprecated C++03 implementation of
``std::function`` has been removed. Users who need to use ``std::function`` should switch to C++11 and above.
- The contents of ``<experimental/memory_resource>`` are now deprecated since libc++ ships ``<memory_resource>`` now.
Please migrate to ``<memory_resource>`` instead. Per libc++'s TS deprecation policy,
``<experimental/memory_resource>`` will be removed in LLVM 18.
- The ``_LIBCPP_DEBUG`` macro is not honored anymore, and it is an error to try to use it. Please migrate to
Upcoming Deprecations and Removals
- The base template for ``std::char_traits`` has been marked as deprecated and will be removed in LLVM 18. If
you are using ``std::char_traits`` with types other than ``char``, ``wchar_t``, ``char8_t``, ``char16_t``,
``char32_t`` or a custom character type for which you specialized ``std::char_traits``, your code will stop
working when we remove the base template. The Standard does not mandate that a base template is provided,
and such a base template is bound to be incorrect for some types, which could currently cause unexpected
behavior while going undetected.
- The ``_LIBCPP_AVAILABILITY_CUSTOM_VERBOSE_ABORT_PROVIDED`` macro will not be honored anymore in LLVM 18.
Please see the updated documentation about the safe libc++ mode and in particular the ``_LIBCPP_VERBOSE_ABORT``
macro for details.
API Changes
- The comparison operators on ``thread::id`` are now defined as free-standing
functions instead of as hidden friends, in conformance with the C++ standard.
Also see `issue 56187 <>`_.
Any standards-required ``[[nodiscard]]`` applications in C++20 are now always enabled. Any extended applications
are now enabled by default and can be disabled by defining ``_LIBCPP_DISABLE_NODISCARD_EXT``.
- ``_LIBCPP_VERSION`` was previously defined to e.g. ``15001`` to represent LLVM 15.0.01, but this value had been
left undocumented. Starting with LLVM 16, ``_LIBCPP_VERSION`` will contain the version of LLVM represented as
``XXYYZZ``. In other words, ``_LIBCPP_VERSION`` is gaining a digit. This should not be an issue for existing
code, since using e.g. ``_LIBCPP_VERSION > 15000`` will still give the right answer now that ``_LIBCPP_VERSION``
is defined as e.g. ``160000`` (with one more digit).
ABI Affecting Changes
- In freestanding mode, ``atomic<small enum class>`` does not contain a lock byte anymore if the platform
can implement lockfree atomics for that size. More specifically, in LLVM <= 11.0.1, an ``atomic<small enum class>``
would not contain a lock byte. This was broken in LLVM >= 12.0.0, where it started including a lock byte despite
the platform supporting lockfree atomics for that size. Starting in LLVM 15.0.1, the ABI for these types has been
restored to what it used to be (no lock byte), which is the most efficient implementation.
This ABI break only affects users that compile with ``-ffreestanding``, and only for ``atomic<T>`` where ``T``
is a non-builtin type that could be lockfree on the platform. See for more details.
- When building libc++ against newlib/picolibc, the type of ``regex_type_traits::char_class_type`` was changed to
``uint16_t`` since all values of ``ctype_base::mask`` are taken. This is technically an ABI break, but including
``<regex> `` has triggered a ``static_assert`` failure since libc++ 14, so it is unlikely that this causes
problems for existing users.
Build System Changes
- Support for ``libcxx``, ``libcxxabi`` and ``libunwind`` in ``LLVM_ENABLE_PROJECTS`` has officially
been removed. Instead, please build according to :ref:`these instructions <build instructions>`.