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.. contents::
Sanitizer tools have a very simple code coverage tool built in. It allows to
get function-level, basic-block-level, and edge-level coverage at a very low
How to build and run
SanitizerCoverage can be used with :doc:`AddressSanitizer`,
:doc:`LeakSanitizer`, :doc:`MemorySanitizer`,
UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer, or without any sanitizer. Pass one of the
following compile-time flags:
* ``-fsanitize-coverage=func`` for function-level coverage (very fast).
* ``-fsanitize-coverage=bb`` for basic-block-level coverage (may add up to 30%
**extra** slowdown).
* ``-fsanitize-coverage=edge`` for edge-level coverage (up to 40% slowdown).
You may also specify ``-fsanitize-coverage=indirect-calls`` for
additional `caller-callee coverage`_.
At run time, pass ``coverage=1`` in ``ASAN_OPTIONS``,
appropriate. For the standalone coverage mode, use ``UBSAN_OPTIONS``.
To get `Coverage counters`_, add ``-fsanitize-coverage=8bit-counters``
to one of the above compile-time flags. At runtime, use
.. code-block:: console
% cat -n
1 #include <stdio.h>
2 __attribute__((noinline))
3 void foo() { printf("foo\n"); }
5 int main(int argc, char **argv) {
6 if (argc == 2)
7 foo();
8 printf("main\n");
9 }
% clang++ -g -fsanitize=address -fsanitize-coverage=func
% ASAN_OPTIONS=coverage=1 ./a.out; ls -l *sancov
-rw-r----- 1 kcc eng 4 Nov 27 12:21 a.out.22673.sancov
% ASAN_OPTIONS=coverage=1 ./a.out foo ; ls -l *sancov
-rw-r----- 1 kcc eng 4 Nov 27 12:21 a.out.22673.sancov
-rw-r----- 1 kcc eng 8 Nov 27 12:21 a.out.22679.sancov
Every time you run an executable instrumented with SanitizerCoverage
one ``*.sancov`` file is created during the process shutdown.
If the executable is dynamically linked against instrumented DSOs,
one ``*.sancov`` file will be also created for every DSO.
The format of ``*.sancov`` files is very simple: the first 8 bytes is the magic,
one of ``0xC0BFFFFFFFFFFF64`` and ``0xC0BFFFFFFFFFFF32``. The last byte of the
magic defines the size of the following offsets. The rest of the data is the
offsets in the corresponding binary/DSO that were executed during the run.
A simple script
``$LLVM/projects/compiler-rt/lib/sanitizer_common/scripts/`` is
provided to dump these offsets.
.. code-block:: console
% print a.out.22679.sancov a.out.22673.sancov read 2 PCs from a.out.22679.sancov read 1 PCs from a.out.22673.sancov 2 files merged; 2 PCs total
You can then filter the output of ```` through ``addr2line --exe
ObjectFile`` or ``llvm-symbolizer --obj ObjectFile`` to get file names and line
.. code-block:: console
% print a.out.22679.sancov a.out.22673.sancov 2> /dev/null | llvm-symbolizer --obj a.out
Sancov Tool
A new experimental ``sancov`` tool is developed to process coverage files.
The tool is part of LLVM project and is currently supported only on Linux.
It can handle symbolization tasks autonomously without any extra support
from the environment. You need to pass .sancov files (named
``<module_name>.<pid>.sancov`` and paths to all corresponding binary elf files.
Sancov matches these files using module names and binaries file names.
.. code-block:: console
USAGE: sancov [options] <action> (<binary file>|<.sancov file>)...
Action (required)
-print - Print coverage addresses
-covered-functions - Print all covered functions.
-not-covered-functions - Print all not covered functions.
-html-report - Print HTML coverage report.
-blacklist=<string> - Blacklist file (sanitizer blacklist format).
-demangle - Print demangled function name.
-strip_path_prefix=<string> - Strip this prefix from file paths in reports
Automatic HTML Report Generation
If ``*SAN_OPTIONS`` contains ``html_cov_report=1`` option set, then html
coverage report would be automatically generated alongside the coverage files.
The ``sancov`` binary should be present in ``PATH`` or
``sancov_path=<path_to_sancov`` option can be used to specify tool location.
How good is the coverage?
It is possible to find out which PCs are not covered, by subtracting the covered
set from the set of all instrumented PCs. The latter can be obtained by listing
all callsites of ``__sanitizer_cov()`` in the binary. On Linux, ````
can do this for you. Just supply the path to binary and a list of covered PCs:
.. code-block:: console
% print a.out.12345.sancov > covered.txt read 2 64-bit PCs from a.out.12345.sancov 1 file merged; 2 PCs total
% missing a.out < covered.txt found 3 instrumented PCs in a.out read 2 PCs from stdin 1 PCs missing from coverage
Edge coverage
Consider this code:
.. code-block:: c++
void foo(int *a) {
if (a)
*a = 0;
It contains 3 basic blocks, let's name them A, B, C:
.. code-block:: none
| \
| B
| /
If blocks A, B, and C are all covered we know for certain that the edges A=>B
and B=>C were executed, but we still don't know if the edge A=>C was executed.
Such edges of control flow graph are called
`critical <>`_. The
edge-level coverage (``-fsanitize-coverage=edge``) simply splits all critical
edges by introducing new dummy blocks and then instruments those blocks:
.. code-block:: none
| \
| /
When ``coverage_bitset=1`` run-time flag is given, the coverage will also be
dumped as a bitset (text file with 1 for blocks that have been executed and 0
for blocks that were not).
.. code-block:: console
% clang++ -fsanitize=address -fsanitize-coverage=edge
% ASAN_OPTIONS="coverage=1:coverage_bitset=1" ./a.out
% ASAN_OPTIONS="coverage=1:coverage_bitset=1" ./a.out 1
% head *bitset*
==> a.out.38214.bitset-sancov <==
==> a.out.6128.bitset-sancov <==
For a given executable the length of the bitset is always the same (well,
unless dlopen/dlclose come into play), so the bitset coverage can be
easily used for bitset-based corpus distillation.
Caller-callee coverage
Every indirect function call is instrumented with a run-time function call that
captures caller and callee. At the shutdown time the process dumps a separate
file called ``caller-callee.PID.sancov`` which contains caller/callee pairs as
pairs of lines (odd lines are callers, even lines are callees)
.. code-block:: console
a.out 0x4a2e0c
a.out 0x4a6510
a.out 0x4a2e0c
a.out 0x4a87f0
Current limitations:
* Only the first 14 callees for every caller are recorded, the rest are silently
* The output format is not very compact since caller and callee may reside in
different modules and we need to spell out the module names.
* The routine that dumps the output is not optimized for speed
* Only Linux x86_64 is tested so far.
* Sandboxes are not supported.
Coverage counters
This experimental feature is inspired by
`AFL <>`__'s coverage
instrumentation. With additional compile-time and run-time flags you can get
more sensitive coverage information. In addition to boolean values assigned to
every basic block (edge) the instrumentation will collect imprecise counters.
On exit, every counter will be mapped to a 8-bit bitset representing counter
ranges: ``1, 2, 3, 4-7, 8-15, 16-31, 32-127, 128+`` and those 8-bit bitsets will
be dumped to disk.
.. code-block:: console
% clang++ -g -fsanitize=address -fsanitize-coverage=edge,8bit-counters
% ASAN_OPTIONS="coverage=1:coverage_counters=1" ./a.out
% ls -l *counters-sancov
... a.out.17110.counters-sancov
% xxd *counters-sancov
0000000: 0001 0100 01
These counters may also be used for in-process coverage-guided fuzzers. See
.. code-block:: c++
// The coverage instrumentation may optionally provide imprecise counters.
// Rather than exposing the counter values to the user we instead map
// the counters to a bitset.
// Every counter is associated with 8 bits in the bitset.
// We define 8 value ranges: 1, 2, 3, 4-7, 8-15, 16-31, 32-127, 128+
// The i-th bit is set to 1 if the counter value is in the i-th range.
// This counter-based coverage implementation is *not* thread-safe.
// Returns the number of registered coverage counters.
uintptr_t __sanitizer_get_number_of_counters();
// Updates the counter 'bitset', clears the counters and returns the number of
// new bits in 'bitset'.
// If 'bitset' is nullptr, only clears the counters.
// Otherwise 'bitset' should be at least
// __sanitizer_get_number_of_counters bytes long and 8-aligned.
__sanitizer_update_counter_bitset_and_clear_counters(uint8_t *bitset);
Tracing basic blocks
Experimental support for basic block (or edge) tracing.
With ``-fsanitize-coverage=trace-bb`` the compiler will insert
``__sanitizer_cov_trace_basic_block(s32 *id)`` before every function, basic block, or edge
(depending on the value of ``-fsanitize-coverage=[func,bb,edge]``).
.. code-block:: console
% clang -g -fsanitize=address -fsanitize-coverage=edge,trace-bb
% ASAN_OPTIONS=coverage=1 ./a.out
This will produce two files after the process exit:
`trace-points.PID.sancov` and `trace-events.PID.sancov`.
The first file will contain a textual description of all the instrumented points in the program
in the form that you can feed into llvm-symbolizer (e.g. `a.out 0x4dca89`), one per line.
The second file will contain the actual execution trace as a sequence of 4-byte integers
-- these integers are the indices into the array of instrumented points (the first file).
Basic block tracing is currently supported only for single-threaded applications.
Tracing PCs
*Experimental* feature similar to tracing basic blocks, but with a different API.
With ``-fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc`` the compiler will insert
``__sanitizer_cov_trace_pc()`` on every edge.
With an additional ``...=trace-pc,indirect-calls`` flag
``__sanitizer_cov_trace_pc_indirect(void *callee)`` will be inserted on every indirect call.
These callbacks are not implemented in the Sanitizer run-time and should be defined
by the user. So, these flags do not require the other sanitizer to be used.
This mechanism is used for fuzzing the Linux kernel (
and can be used with `AFL <>`__.
Tracing data flow
An *experimental* feature to support data-flow-guided fuzzing.
With ``-fsanitize-coverage=trace-cmp`` the compiler will insert extra instrumentation
around comparison instructions and switch statements.
The fuzzer will need to define the following functions,
they will be called by the instrumented code.
.. code-block:: c++
// Called before a comparison instruction.
// SizeAndType is a packed value containing
// - [63:32] the Size of the operands of comparison in bits
// - [31:0] the Type of comparison (one of ICMP_EQ, ... ICMP_SLE)
// Arg1 and Arg2 are arguments of the comparison.
void __sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp(uint64_t SizeAndType, uint64_t Arg1, uint64_t Arg2);
// Called before a switch statement.
// Val is the switch operand.
// Cases[0] is the number of case constants.
// Cases[1] is the size of Val in bits.
// Cases[2:] are the case constants.
void __sanitizer_cov_trace_switch(uint64_t Val, uint64_t *Cases);
This interface is a subject to change.
The current implementation is not thread-safe and thus can be safely used only for single-threaded targets.
Output directory
By default, .sancov files are created in the current working directory.
This can be changed with ``ASAN_OPTIONS=coverage_dir=/path``:
.. code-block:: console
% ASAN_OPTIONS="coverage=1:coverage_dir=/tmp/cov" ./a.out foo
% ls -l /tmp/cov/*sancov
-rw-r----- 1 kcc eng 4 Nov 27 12:21 a.out.22673.sancov
-rw-r----- 1 kcc eng 8 Nov 27 12:21 a.out.22679.sancov
Sudden death
Normally, coverage data is collected in memory and saved to disk when the
program exits (with an ``atexit()`` handler), when a SIGSEGV is caught, or when
``__sanitizer_cov_dump()`` is called.
If the program ends with a signal that ASan does not handle (or can not handle
at all, like SIGKILL), coverage data will be lost. This is a big problem on
Android, where SIGKILL is a normal way of evicting applications from memory.
With ``ASAN_OPTIONS=coverage=1:coverage_direct=1`` coverage data is written to a
memory-mapped file as soon as it collected.
.. code-block:: console
% ASAN_OPTIONS="coverage=1:coverage_direct=1" ./a.out
% ls 7036.sancov.raw a.out
% rawunpack 7036.sancov.raw reading map unpacking 7036.sancov.raw
writing 1 PCs to a.out.7036.sancov
% print a.out.7036.sancov read 1 PCs from a.out.7036.sancov 1 files merged; 1 PCs total
Note that on 64-bit platforms, this method writes 2x more data than the default,
because it stores full PC values instead of 32-bit offsets.
In-process fuzzing
Coverage data could be useful for fuzzers and sometimes it is preferable to run
a fuzzer in the same process as the code being fuzzed (in-process fuzzer).
You can use ``__sanitizer_get_total_unique_coverage()`` from
``<sanitizer/coverage_interface.h>`` which returns the number of currently
covered entities in the program. This will tell the fuzzer if the coverage has
increased after testing every new input.
If a fuzzer finds a bug in the ASan run, you will need to save the reproducer
before exiting the process. Use ``__asan_set_death_callback`` from
``<sanitizer/asan_interface.h>`` to do that.
An example of such fuzzer can be found in `the LLVM tree
This coverage implementation is **fast**. With function-level coverage
(``-fsanitize-coverage=func``) the overhead is not measurable. With
basic-block-level coverage (``-fsanitize-coverage=bb``) the overhead varies
between 0 and 25%.
============== ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= =========
benchmark cov0 cov1 diff 0-1 cov2 diff 0-2 diff 1-2
============== ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= =========
400.perlbench 1296.00 1307.00 1.01 1465.00 1.13 1.12
401.bzip2 858.00 854.00 1.00 1010.00 1.18 1.18
403.gcc 613.00 617.00 1.01 683.00 1.11 1.11
429.mcf 605.00 582.00 0.96 610.00 1.01 1.05
445.gobmk 896.00 880.00 0.98 1050.00 1.17 1.19
456.hmmer 892.00 892.00 1.00 918.00 1.03 1.03
458.sjeng 995.00 1009.00 1.01 1217.00 1.22 1.21
462.libquantum 497.00 492.00 0.99 534.00 1.07 1.09
464.h264ref 1461.00 1467.00 1.00 1543.00 1.06 1.05
471.omnetpp 575.00 590.00 1.03 660.00 1.15 1.12
473.astar 658.00 652.00 0.99 715.00 1.09 1.10
483.xalancbmk 471.00 491.00 1.04 582.00 1.24 1.19
433.milc 616.00 627.00 1.02 627.00 1.02 1.00
444.namd 602.00 601.00 1.00 654.00 1.09 1.09
447.dealII 630.00 634.00 1.01 653.00 1.04 1.03
450.soplex 365.00 368.00 1.01 395.00 1.08 1.07
453.povray 427.00 434.00 1.02 495.00 1.16 1.14
470.lbm 357.00 375.00 1.05 370.00 1.04 0.99
482.sphinx3 927.00 928.00 1.00 1000.00 1.08 1.08
============== ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= =========
Why another coverage?
Why did we implement yet another code coverage?
* We needed something that is lightning fast, plays well with
AddressSanitizer, and does not significantly increase the binary size.
* Traditional coverage implementations based in global counters
`suffer from contention on counters