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// Copyright ⓒ 2015-2016 Kevin B. Knapp and [`clap-rs` contributors](https://github.com/kbknapp/clap-rs/blob/master/CONTRIBUTORS.md).
// Licensed under the MIT license
// (see LICENSE or <http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT>) All files in the project carrying such
// notice may not be copied, modified, or distributed except according to those terms.
//! `clap` is a simple-to-use, efficient, and full-featured library for parsing command line
//! arguments and subcommands when writing console/terminal applications.
//!
//! ## About
//!
//! `clap` is used to parse *and validate* the string of command line arguments provided by the user
//! at runtime. You provide the list of valid possibilities, and `clap` handles the rest. This means
//! you focus on your *applications* functionality, and less on the parsing and validating of
//! arguments.
//!
//! `clap` also provides the traditional version and help switches (or flags) 'for free' meaning
//! automatically with no configuration. It does this by checking list of valid possibilities you
//! supplied and adding only the ones you haven't already defined. If you are using subcommands,
//! `clap` will also auto-generate a `help` subcommand for you in addition to the traditional flags.
//!
//! Once `clap` parses the user provided string of arguments, it returns the matches along with any
//! applicable values. If the user made an error or typo, `clap` informs them of the mistake and
//! exits gracefully (or returns a `Result` type and allows you to perform any clean up prior to
//! exit). Because of this, you can make reasonable assumptions in your code about the validity of
//! the arguments.
//!
//!
//! ## Quick Example
//!
//! The following examples show a quick example of some of the very basic functionality of `clap`.
//! For more advanced usage, such as requirements, conflicts, groups, multiple values and
//! occurrences see the [documentation](https://docs.rs/clap/), [examples/](examples) directory of
//! this repository or the [video tutorials](https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLza5oFLQGTl2Z5T8g1pRkIynR3E0_pc7U).
//!
//! **NOTE:** All of these examples are functionally the same, but show different styles in which to
//! use `clap`
//!
//! The first example shows a method that allows more advanced configuration options (not shown in
//! this small example), or even dynamically generating arguments when desired. The downside is it's
//! more verbose.
//!
//! ```no_run
//! // (Full example with detailed comments in examples/01b_quick_example.rs)
//! //
//! // This example demonstrates clap's full 'builder pattern' style of creating arguments which is
//! // more verbose, but allows easier editing, and at times more advanced options, or the possibility
//! // to generate arguments dynamically.
//! extern crate clap;
//! use clap::{Arg, App, SubCommand};
//!
//! fn main() {
//! let matches = App::new("My Super Program")
//! .version("1.0")
//! .author("Kevin K. <kbknapp@gmail.com>")
//! .about("Does awesome things")
//! .arg(Arg::with_name("config")
//! .short("c")
//! .long("config")
//! .value_name("FILE")
//! .help("Sets a custom config file")
//! .takes_value(true))
//! .arg(Arg::with_name("INPUT")
//! .help("Sets the input file to use")
//! .required(true)
//! .index(1))
//! .arg(Arg::with_name("v")
//! .short("v")
//! .multiple(true)
//! .help("Sets the level of verbosity"))
//! .subcommand(SubCommand::with_name("test")
//! .about("controls testing features")
//! .version("1.3")
//! .author("Someone E. <someone_else@other.com>")
//! .arg(Arg::with_name("debug")
//! .short("d")
//! .help("print debug information verbosely")))
//! .get_matches();
//!
//! // Gets a value for config if supplied by user, or defaults to "default.conf"
//! let config = matches.value_of("config").unwrap_or("default.conf");
//! println!("Value for config: {}", config);
//!
//! // Calling .unwrap() is safe here because "INPUT" is required (if "INPUT" wasn't
//! // required we could have used an 'if let' to conditionally get the value)
//! println!("Using input file: {}", matches.value_of("INPUT").unwrap());
//!
//! // Vary the output based on how many times the user used the "verbose" flag
//! // (i.e. 'myprog -v -v -v' or 'myprog -vvv' vs 'myprog -v'
//! match matches.occurrences_of("v") {
//! 0 => println!("No verbose info"),
//! 1 => println!("Some verbose info"),
//! 2 => println!("Tons of verbose info"),
//! 3 | _ => println!("Don't be crazy"),
//! }
//!
//! // You can handle information about subcommands by requesting their matches by name
//! // (as below), requesting just the name used, or both at the same time
//! if let Some(matches) = matches.subcommand_matches("test") {
//! if matches.is_present("debug") {
//! println!("Printing debug info...");
//! } else {
//! println!("Printing normally...");
//! }
//! }
//!
//! // more program logic goes here...
//! }
//! ```
//!
//! The next example shows a far less verbose method, but sacrifices some of the advanced
//! configuration options (not shown in this small example). This method also takes a *very* minor
//! runtime penalty.
//!
//! ```no_run
//! // (Full example with detailed comments in examples/01a_quick_example.rs)
//! //
//! // This example demonstrates clap's "usage strings" method of creating arguments
//! // which is less verbose
//! extern crate clap;
//! use clap::{Arg, App, SubCommand};
//!
//! fn main() {
//! let matches = App::new("myapp")
//! .version("1.0")
//! .author("Kevin K. <kbknapp@gmail.com>")
//! .about("Does awesome things")
//! .args_from_usage(
//! "-c, --config=[FILE] 'Sets a custom config file'
//! <INPUT> 'Sets the input file to use'
//! -v... 'Sets the level of verbosity'")
//! .subcommand(SubCommand::with_name("test")
//! .about("controls testing features")
//! .version("1.3")
//! .author("Someone E. <someone_else@other.com>")
//! .arg_from_usage("-d, --debug 'Print debug information'"))
//! .get_matches();
//!
//! // Same as previous example...
//! }
//! ```
//!
//! This third method shows how you can use a YAML file to build your CLI and keep your Rust source
//! tidy or support multiple localized translations by having different YAML files for each
//! localization.
//!
//! First, create the `cli.yml` file to hold your CLI options, but it could be called anything we
//! like:
//!
//! ```yaml
//! name: myapp
//! version: "1.0"
//! author: Kevin K. <kbknapp@gmail.com>
//! about: Does awesome things
//! args:
//! - config:
//! short: c
//! long: config
//! value_name: FILE
//! help: Sets a custom config file
//! takes_value: true
//! - INPUT:
//! help: Sets the input file to use
//! required: true
//! index: 1
//! - verbose:
//! short: v
//! multiple: true
//! help: Sets the level of verbosity
//! subcommands:
//! - test:
//! about: controls testing features
//! version: "1.3"
//! author: Someone E. <someone_else@other.com>
//! args:
//! - debug:
//! short: d
//! help: print debug information
//! ```
//!
//! Since this feature requires additional dependencies that not everyone may want, it is *not*
//! compiled in by default and we need to enable a feature flag in Cargo.toml:
//!
//! Simply change your `clap = "~2.27.0"` to `clap = {version = "~2.27.0", features = ["yaml"]}`.
//!
//! At last we create our `main.rs` file just like we would have with the previous two examples:
//!
//! ```ignore
//! // (Full example with detailed comments in examples/17_yaml.rs)
//! //
//! // This example demonstrates clap's building from YAML style of creating arguments which is far
//! // more clean, but takes a very small performance hit compared to the other two methods.
//! #[macro_use]
//! extern crate clap;
//! use clap::App;
//!
//! fn main() {
//! // The YAML file is found relative to the current file, similar to how modules are found
//! let yaml = load_yaml!("cli.yml");
//! let matches = App::from_yaml(yaml).get_matches();
//!
//! // Same as previous examples...
//! }
//! ```
//!
//! Finally there is a macro version, which is like a hybrid approach offering the speed of the
//! builder pattern (the first example), but without all the verbosity.
//!
//! ```no_run
//! #[macro_use]
//! extern crate clap;
//!
//! fn main() {
//! let matches = clap_app!(myapp =>
//! (version: "1.0")
//! (author: "Kevin K. <kbknapp@gmail.com>")
//! (about: "Does awesome things")
//! (@arg CONFIG: -c --config +takes_value "Sets a custom config file")
//! (@arg INPUT: +required "Sets the input file to use")
//! (@arg debug: -d ... "Sets the level of debugging information")
//! (@subcommand test =>
//! (about: "controls testing features")
//! (version: "1.3")
//! (author: "Someone E. <someone_else@other.com>")
//! (@arg verbose: -v --verbose "Print test information verbosely")
//! )
//! ).get_matches();
//!
//! // Same as before...
//! }
//! ```
//!
//! If you were to compile any of the above programs and run them with the flag `--help` or `-h` (or
//! `help` subcommand, since we defined `test` as a subcommand) the following would be output
//!
//! ```text
//! $ myprog --help
//! My Super Program 1.0
//! Kevin K. <kbknapp@gmail.com>
//! Does awesome things
//!
//! USAGE:
//! MyApp [FLAGS] [OPTIONS] <INPUT> [SUBCOMMAND]
//!
//! FLAGS:
//! -h, --help Prints this message
//! -v Sets the level of verbosity
//! -V, --version Prints version information
//!
//! OPTIONS:
//! -c, --config <FILE> Sets a custom config file
//!
//! ARGS:
//! INPUT The input file to use
//!
//! SUBCOMMANDS:
//! help Prints this message
//! test Controls testing features
//! ```
//!
//! **NOTE:** You could also run `myapp test --help` to see similar output and options for the
//! `test` subcommand.
//!
//! ## Try it!
//!
//! ### Pre-Built Test
//!
//! To try out the pre-built example, use the following steps:
//!
//! * Clone the repository `$ git clone https://github.com/kbknapp/clap-rs && cd clap-rs/tests`
//! * Compile the example `$ cargo build --release`
//! * Run the help info `$ ./target/release/claptests --help`
//! * Play with the arguments!
//!
//! ### BYOB (Build Your Own Binary)
//!
//! To test out `clap`'s default auto-generated help/version follow these steps:
//!
//! * Create a new cargo project `$ cargo new fake --bin && cd fake`
//! * Add `clap` to your `Cargo.toml`
//!
//! ```toml
//! [dependencies]
//! clap = "2"
//! ```
//!
//! * Add the following to your `src/main.rs`
//!
//! ```no_run
//! extern crate clap;
//! use clap::App;
//!
//! fn main() {
//! App::new("fake").version("v1.0-beta").get_matches();
//! }
//! ```
//!
//! * Build your program `$ cargo build --release`
//! * Run with help or version `$ ./target/release/fake --help` or `$ ./target/release/fake
//! --version`
//!
//! ## Usage
//!
//! For full usage, add `clap` as a dependency in your `Cargo.toml` (it is **highly** recommended to
//! use the `~major.minor.patch` style versions in your `Cargo.toml`, for more information see
//! [Compatibility Policy](#compatibility-policy)) to use from crates.io:
//!
//! ```toml
//! [dependencies]
//! clap = "~2.27.0"
//! ```
//!
//! Or get the latest changes from the master branch at github:
//!
//! ```toml
//! [dependencies.clap]
//! git = "https://github.com/kbknapp/clap-rs.git"
//! ```
//!
//! Add `extern crate clap;` to your crate root.
//!
//! Define a list of valid arguments for your program (see the
//! [documentation](https://docs.rs/clap/) or [examples/](examples) directory of this repo)
//!
//! Then run `cargo build` or `cargo update && cargo build` for your project.
//!
//! ### Optional Dependencies / Features
//!
//! #### Features enabled by default
//!
//! * `suggestions`: Turns on the `Did you mean '--myoption'?` feature for when users make typos. (builds dependency `strsim`)
//! * `color`: Turns on colored error messages. This feature only works on non-Windows OSs. (builds dependency `ansi-term` and `atty`)
//! * `wrap_help`: Wraps the help at the actual terminal width when
//! available, instead of 120 chracters. (builds dependency `textwrap`
//! with feature `term_size`)
//!
//! To disable these, add this to your `Cargo.toml`:
//!
//! ```toml
//! [dependencies.clap]
//! version = "~2.27.0"
//! default-features = false
//! ```
//!
//! You can also selectively enable only the features you'd like to include, by adding:
//!
//! ```toml
//! [dependencies.clap]
//! version = "~2.27.0"
//! default-features = false
//!
//! # Cherry-pick the features you'd like to use
//! features = [ "suggestions", "color" ]
//! ```
//!
//! #### Opt-in features
//!
//! * **"yaml"**: Enables building CLIs from YAML documents. (builds dependency `yaml-rust`)
//! * **"unstable"**: Enables unstable `clap` features that may change from release to release
//!
//! ### Dependencies Tree
//!
//! The following graphic depicts `clap`s dependency graph (generated using
//! [cargo-graph](https://github.com/kbknapp/cargo-graph)).
//!
//! * **Dashed** Line: Optional dependency
//! * **Red** Color: **NOT** included by default (must use cargo `features` to enable)
//! * **Blue** Color: Dev dependency, only used while developing.
//!
//! ![clap dependencies](clap_dep_graph.png)
//!
//! ### More Information
//!
//! You can find complete documentation on the [docs.rs](https://docs.rs/clap/) for this project.
//!
//! You can also find usage examples in the [examples/](examples) directory of this repo.
//!
//! #### Video Tutorials
//!
//! There's also the video tutorial series [Argument Parsing with Rust v2](https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLza5oFLQGTl2Z5T8g1pRkIynR3E0_pc7U).
//!
//! These videos slowly trickle out as I finish them and currently a work in progress.
//!
//! ## How to Contribute
//!
//! Contributions are always welcome! And there is a multitude of ways in which you can help
//! depending on what you like to do, or are good at. Anything from documentation, code cleanup,
//! issue completion, new features, you name it, even filing issues is contributing and greatly
//! appreciated!
//!
//! Another really great way to help is if you find an interesting, or helpful way in which to use
//! `clap`. You can either add it to the [examples/](examples) directory, or file an issue and tell
//! me. I'm all about giving credit where credit is due :)
//!
//! Please read [CONTRIBUTING.md](.github/CONTRIBUTING.md) before you start contributing.
//!
//!
//! ### Testing Code
//!
//! To test with all features both enabled and disabled, you can run theese commands:
//!
//! ```text
//! $ cargo test --no-default-features
//! $ cargo test --features "yaml unstable"
//! ```
//!
//! Alternatively, if you have [`just`](https://github.com/casey/just) installed you can run the
//! prebuilt recipies. *Not* using `just` is prfeclty fine as well, it simply bundles commands
//! automatically.
//!
//! For example, to test the code, as above simply run:
//!
//! ```text
//! $ just run-tests`
//! ```
//!
//! From here on, I will lis the appropriate `cargo` command as well as the `just` command.
//!
//! Sometimes it's helpful to only run a subset of the tests, which can be done via:
//!
//! ```text
//! $ cargo test --test <test_name>
//!
//! # Or
//!
//! $ just run-test <test_name>
//! ```
//!
//! ### Linting Code
//!
//! During the CI process `clap` runs against many different lints using
//! [`clippy`](https://github.com/Manishearth/rust-clippy). In order to check if these lints pass on
//! your own computer prior to submitting a PR you'll need a nightly compiler.
//!
//! In order to check the code for lints run either:
//!
//! ```text
//! $ rustup override add nightly
//! $ cargo build --features lints
//! $ rustup override remove
//!
//! # Or
//!
//! $ just lint
//! ```
//!
//! ### Debugging Code
//!
//! Another helpful technique is to see the `clap` debug output while developing features. In order
//! to see the debug output while running the full test suite or individual tests, run:
//!
//! ```text
//! $ cargo test --features debug
//!
//! # Or for individual tests
//! $ cargo test --test <test_name> --features debug
//!
//! # The corresponding just command for individual debugging tests is:
//! $ just debug <test_name>
//! ```
//!
//! ### Goals
//!
//! There are a few goals of `clap` that I'd like to maintain throughout contributions. If your
//! proposed changes break, or go against any of these goals we'll discuss the changes further
//! before merging (but will *not* be ignored, all contributes are welcome!). These are by no means
//! hard-and-fast rules, as I'm no expert and break them myself from time to time (even if by
//! mistake or ignorance).
//!
//! * Remain backwards compatible when possible
//! - If backwards compatibility *must* be broken, use deprecation warnings if at all possible before
//! removing legacy code - This does not apply for security concerns
//! * Parse arguments quickly
//! - Parsing of arguments shouldn't slow down usage of the main program - This is also true of
//! generating help and usage information (although *slightly* less stringent, as the program is about
//! to exit)
//! * Try to be cognizant of memory usage
//! - Once parsing is complete, the memory footprint of `clap` should be low since the main program
//! is the star of the show
//! * `panic!` on *developer* error, exit gracefully on *end-user* error
//!
//! ### Compatibility Policy
//!
//! Because `clap` takes `SemVer` and compatibility seriously, this is the official policy regarding
//! breaking changes and previous versions of Rust.
//!
//! `clap` will pin the minimum required version of Rust to the CI builds. Bumping the minimum
//! version of Rust is considered a minor breaking change, meaning *at a minimum* the minor version
//! of `clap` will be bumped.
//!
//! In order to keep from being suprised of breaking changes, it is **highly** recommended to use
//! the `~major.minor.patch` style in your `Cargo.toml`:
//!
//! ```toml
//! [dependencies] clap = "~2.27.0"
//! ```
//!
//! This will cause *only* the patch version to be updated upon a `cargo update` call, and therefore
//! cannot break due to new features, or bumped minimum versions of Rust.
//!
//! #### Minimum Version of Rust
//!
//! `clap` will officially support current stable Rust, minus two releases, but may work with prior
//! releases as well. For example, current stable Rust at the time of this writing is 1.21.0,
//! meaning `clap` is guaranteed to compile with 1.19.0 and beyond. At the 1.22.0 release, `clap`
//! will be guaranteed to compile with 1.20.0 and beyond, etc.
//!
//! Upon bumping the minimum version of Rust (assuming it's within the stable-2 range), it *must* be
//! clearly annotated in the `CHANGELOG.md`
//!
//! ## License
//!
//! `clap` is licensed under the MIT license. Please read the [LICENSE-MIT](LICENSE-MIT) file in
//! this repository for more information.
#![crate_type = "lib"]
#![doc(html_root_url = "https://docs.rs/clap/2.29.0")]
#![deny(missing_docs, missing_debug_implementations, missing_copy_implementations, trivial_casts,
unused_import_braces, unused_allocation)]
// Lints we'd like to deny but are currently failing for upstream crates
// unused_qualifications (bitflags, clippy)
// trivial_numeric_casts (bitflags)
#![cfg_attr(not(any(feature = "lints", feature = "nightly")), forbid(unstable_features))]
#![cfg_attr(feature = "lints", feature(plugin))]
#![cfg_attr(feature = "lints", plugin(clippy))]
// Need to disable deny(warnings) while deprecations are active
// #![cfg_attr(feature = "lints", deny(warnings))]
#![cfg_attr(feature = "lints", allow(cyclomatic_complexity))]
#![cfg_attr(feature = "lints", allow(doc_markdown))]
#![cfg_attr(feature = "lints", allow(explicit_iter_loop))]
#[cfg(feature = "color")]
extern crate ansi_term;
#[cfg(feature = "color")]
extern crate atty;
#[macro_use]
extern crate bitflags;
#[cfg(feature = "suggestions")]
extern crate strsim;
#[cfg(feature = "wrap_help")]
extern crate term_size;
extern crate textwrap;
extern crate unicode_width;
#[cfg(feature = "vec_map")]
extern crate vec_map;
#[cfg(feature = "yaml")]
extern crate yaml_rust;
#[cfg(feature = "yaml")]
pub use yaml_rust::YamlLoader;
pub use args::{Arg, ArgGroup, ArgMatches, ArgSettings, OsValues, SubCommand, Values};
pub use app::{App, AppSettings};
pub use fmt::Format;
pub use errors::{Error, ErrorKind, Result};
pub use completions::Shell;
#[macro_use]
mod macros;
mod app;
mod args;
mod usage_parser;
mod fmt;
mod suggestions;
mod errors;
mod osstringext;
mod strext;
mod completions;
mod map;
const INTERNAL_ERROR_MSG: &'static str = "Fatal internal error. Please consider filing a bug \
report at https://github.com/kbknapp/clap-rs/issues";
const INVALID_UTF8: &'static str = "unexpected invalid UTF-8 code point";
#[cfg(unstable)]
pub use derive::{ArgEnum, ClapApp, FromArgMatches, IntoApp};
#[cfg(unstable)]
mod derive {
/// @TODO @release @docs
pub trait ClapApp: IntoApp + FromArgMatches + Sized {
/// @TODO @release @docs
fn parse() -> Self { Self::from_argmatches(Self::into_app().get_matches()) }
/// @TODO @release @docs
fn parse_from<I, T>(argv: I) -> Self
where
I: IntoIterator<Item = T>,
T: Into<OsString> + Clone,
{
Self::from_argmatches(Self::into_app().get_matches_from(argv))
}
/// @TODO @release @docs
fn try_parse() -> Result<Self, clap::Error> {
Self::try_from_argmatches(Self::into_app().get_matches_safe()?)
}
/// @TODO @release @docs
fn try_parse_from<I, T>(argv: I) -> Result<Self, clap::Error>
where
I: IntoIterator<Item = T>,
T: Into<OsString> + Clone,
{
Self::try_from_argmatches(Self::into_app().get_matches_from_safe(argv)?)
}
}
/// @TODO @release @docs
pub trait IntoApp {
/// @TODO @release @docs
fn into_app<'a, 'b>() -> clap::App<'a, 'b>;
}
/// @TODO @release @docs
pub trait FromArgMatches: Sized {
/// @TODO @release @docs
fn from_argmatches<'a>(matches: clap::ArgMatches<'a>) -> Self;
/// @TODO @release @docs
fn try_from_argmatches<'a>(matches: clap::ArgMatches<'a>) -> Result<Self, clap::Error>;
}
/// @TODO @release @docs
pub trait ArgEnum {}
}