blob: 45d8695e607c31666853a01a6a1344ac1f3e8673 [file] [log] [blame]
use core::fmt;
use core::cell::UnsafeCell;
use core::sync::atomic::AtomicUsize;
use core::sync::atomic::Ordering::{Acquire, Release, AcqRel};
use futures_core::task::{LocalWaker, Waker};
/// A synchronization primitive for task wakeup.
/// Sometimes the task interested in a given event will change over time.
/// An `AtomicWaker` can coordinate concurrent notifications with the consumer
/// potentially "updating" the underlying task to wake up. This is useful in
/// scenarios where a computation completes in another thread and wants to
/// notify the consumer, but the consumer is in the process of being migrated to
/// a new logical task.
/// Consumers should call `register` before checking the result of a computation
/// and producers should call `wake` after producing the computation (this
/// differs from the usual `thread::park` pattern). It is also permitted for
/// `wake` to be called **before** `register`. This results in a no-op.
/// A single `AtomicWaker` may be reused for any number of calls to `register` or
/// `wake`.
/// `AtomicWaker` does not provide any memory ordering guarantees, as such the
/// user should use caution and use other synchronization primitives to guard
/// the result of the underlying computation.
pub struct AtomicWaker {
state: AtomicUsize,
waker: UnsafeCell<Option<Waker>>,
// `AtomicWaker` is a multi-consumer, single-producer transfer cell. The cell
// stores a `Waker` value produced by calls to `register` and many threads can
// race to take the waker (to wake it) by calling `wake`.
// If a new `Waker` instance is produced by calling `register` before an
// existing one is consumed, then the existing one is overwritten.
// While `AtomicWaker` is single-producer, the implementation ensures memory
// safety. In the event of concurrent calls to `register`, there will be a
// single winner whose waker will get stored in the cell. The losers will not
// have their tasks woken. As such, callers should ensure to add synchronization
// to calls to `register`.
// The implementation uses a single `AtomicUsize` value to coordinate access to
// the `Waker` cell. There are two bits that are operated on independently.
// These are represented by `REGISTERING` and `WAKING`.
// The `REGISTERING` bit is set when a producer enters the critical section. The
// `WAKING` bit is set when a consumer enters the critical section. Neither bit
// being set is represented by `WAITING`.
// A thread obtains an exclusive lock on the waker cell by transitioning the
// state from `WAITING` to `REGISTERING` or `WAKING`, depending on the operation
// the thread wishes to perform. When this transition is made, it is guaranteed
// that no other thread will access the waker cell.
// # Registering
// On a call to `register`, an attempt to transition the state from WAITING to
// REGISTERING is made. On success, the caller obtains a lock on the waker cell.
// If the lock is obtained, then the thread sets the waker cell to the waker
// provided as an argument. Then it attempts to transition the state back from
// If this transition is successful, then the registering process is complete
// and the next call to `wake` will observe the waker.
// If the transition fails, then there was a concurrent call to `wake` that was
// unable to access the waker cell (due to the registering thread holding the
// lock). To handle this, the registering thread removes the waker it just set
// from the cell and calls `wake` on it. This call to wake represents the
// attempt to wake by the other thread (that set the `WAKING` bit). The state is
// then transitioned from `REGISTERING | WAKING` back to `WAITING`. This
// transition must succeed because, at this point, the state cannot be
// transitioned by another thread.
// # Waking
// On a call to `wake`, an attempt to transition the state from `WAITING` to
// `WAKING` is made. On success, the caller obtains a lock on the waker cell.
// If the lock is obtained, then the thread takes ownership of the current value
// in the waker cell, and calls `wake` on it. The state is then transitioned
// back to `WAITING`. This transition must succeed as, at this point, the state
// cannot be transitioned by another thread.
// If the thread is unable to obtain the lock, the `WAKING` bit is still. This
// is because it has either been set by the current thread but the previous
// value included the `REGISTERING` bit **or** a concurrent thread is in the
// `WAKING` critical section. Either way, no action must be taken.
// If the current thread is the only concurrent call to `wake` and another
// thread is in the `register` critical section, when the other thread **exits**
// the `register` critical section, it will observe the `WAKING` bit and handle
// the wake itself.
// If another thread is in the `wake` critical section, then it will handle
// waking the task.
// # A potential race (is safely handled).
// Imagine the following situation:
// * Thread A obtains the `wake` lock and wakes a task.
// * Before thread A releases the `wake` lock, the woken task is scheduled.
// * Thread B attempts to wake the task. In theory this should result in the
// task being woken, but it cannot because thread A still holds the wake lock.
// This case is handled by requiring users of `AtomicWaker` to call `register`
// **before** attempting to observe the application state change that resulted
// in the task being awoken. The wakers also change the application state before
// calling wake.
// Because of this, the waker will do one of two things.
// 1) Observe the application state change that Thread B is woken for. In this
// case, it is OK for Thread B's wake to be lost.
// 2) Call register before attempting to observe the application state. Since
// Thread A still holds the `wake` lock, the call to `register` will result
// in the task waking itself and get scheduled again.
/// Idle state
const WAITING: usize = 0;
/// A new waker value is being registered with the `AtomicWaker` cell.
const REGISTERING: usize = 0b01;
/// The waker currently registered with the `AtomicWaker` cell is being woken.
const WAKING: usize = 0b10;
impl AtomicWaker {
/// Create an `AtomicWaker`.
pub fn new() -> AtomicWaker {
// Make sure that task is Sync
trait AssertSync: Sync {}
impl AssertSync for Waker {}
AtomicWaker {
state: AtomicUsize::new(WAITING),
waker: UnsafeCell::new(None),
/// Registers the waker to be notified on calls to `wake`.
/// The new task will take place of any previous tasks that were registered
/// by previous calls to `register`. Any calls to `wake` that happen after
/// a call to `register` (as defined by the memory ordering rules), will
/// notify the `register` caller's task and deregister the waker from future
/// notifications. Because of this, callers should ensure `register` gets
/// invoked with a new `Waker` **each** time they require a wakeup.
/// It is safe to call `register` with multiple other threads concurrently
/// calling `wake`. This will result in the `register` caller's current
/// task being notified once.
/// This function is safe to call concurrently, but this is generally a bad
/// idea. Concurrent calls to `register` will attempt to register different
/// tasks to be notified. One of the callers will win and have its task set,
/// but there is no guarantee as to which caller will succeed.
/// # Examples
/// Here is how `register` is used when implementing a flag.
/// ```
/// #![feature(pin, arbitrary_self_types, futures_api)]
/// use futures::future::Future;
/// use futures::task::{LocalWaker, Poll, AtomicWaker};
/// use std::sync::atomic::AtomicBool;
/// use std::sync::atomic::Ordering::SeqCst;
/// use std::pin::Pin;
/// struct Flag {
/// waker: AtomicWaker,
/// set: AtomicBool,
/// }
/// impl Future for Flag {
/// type Output = ();
/// fn poll(mut self: Pin<&mut Self>, lw: &LocalWaker) -> Poll<()> {
/// // Register **before** checking `set` to avoid a race condition
/// // that would result in lost notifications.
/// self.waker.register(lw);
/// if self.set.load(SeqCst) {
/// Poll::Ready(())
/// } else {
/// Poll::Pending
/// }
/// }
/// }
/// ```
pub fn register(&self, lw: &LocalWaker) {
match self.state.compare_and_swap(WAITING, REGISTERING, Acquire) {
unsafe {
// Locked acquired, update the waker cell
*self.waker.get() = Some(lw.clone().into_waker());
// Release the lock. If the state transitioned to include
// the `WAKING` bit, this means that a wake has been
// called concurrently, so we have to remove the waker and
// wake it.`
// Start by assuming that the state is `REGISTERING` as this
// is what we jut set it to.
let res = self.state.compare_exchange(
match res {
Ok(_) => {}
Err(actual) => {
// This branch can only be reached if a
// concurrent thread called `wake`. In this
// case, `actual` **must** be `REGISTERING |
// `WAKING`.
debug_assert_eq!(actual, REGISTERING | WAKING);
// Take the waker to wake once the atomic operation has
// completed.
let waker = (*self.waker.get()).take().unwrap();
// Just swap, because no one could change state while state == `REGISTERING` | `WAKING`.
self.state.swap(WAITING, AcqRel);
// The atomic swap was complete, now
// wake the task and return.
// Currently in the process of waking the task, i.e.,
// `wake` is currently being called on the old task handle.
// So, we call wake on the new waker
state => {
// In this case, a concurrent thread is holding the
// "registering" lock. This probably indicates a bug in the
// caller's code as racing to call `register` doesn't make much
// sense.
// We just want to maintain memory safety. It is ok to drop the
// call to `register`.
state == REGISTERING ||
/// Calls `wake` on the last `Waker` passed to `register`.
/// If `register` has not been called yet, then this does nothing.
pub fn wake(&self) {
// AcqRel ordering is used in order to acquire the value of the `task`
// cell as well as to establish a `release` ordering with whatever
// memory the `AtomicWaker` is associated with.
match self.state.fetch_or(WAKING, AcqRel) {
// The waking lock has been acquired.
let waker = unsafe { (*self.waker.get()).take() };
// Release the lock
self.state.fetch_and(!WAKING, Release);
if let Some(waker) = waker {
state => {
// There is a concurrent thread currently updating the
// associated task.
// Nothing more to do as the `WAKING` bit has been set. It
// doesn't matter if there are concurrent registering threads or
// not.
state == REGISTERING ||
state == WAKING);
impl Default for AtomicWaker {
fn default() -> Self {
impl fmt::Debug for AtomicWaker {
fn fmt(&self, fmt: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
write!(fmt, "AtomicWaker")
unsafe impl Send for AtomicWaker {}
unsafe impl Sync for AtomicWaker {}