blob: 46881b9eca89e8611b70b531792e41abf8503e5e [file] [log] [blame]
use super::Task;
use core::fmt;
use core::cell::UnsafeCell;
use core::sync::atomic::AtomicUsize;
use core::sync::atomic::Ordering::{Acquire, Release, AcqRel};
/// A synchronization primitive for task notification.
/// `AtomicTask` will coordinate concurrent notifications with the consumer
/// potentially "updating" the underlying task to notify. This is useful in
/// scenarios where a computation completes in another thread and wants to
/// notify the consumer, but the consumer is in the process of being migrated to
/// a new logical task.
/// Consumers should call `register` before checking the result of a computation
/// and producers should call `notify` after producing the computation (this
/// differs from the usual `thread::park` pattern). It is also permitted for
/// `notify` to be called **before** `register`. This results in a no-op.
/// A single `AtomicTask` may be reused for any number of calls to `register` or
/// `notify`.
/// `AtomicTask` does not provide any memory ordering guarantees, as such the
/// user should use caution and use other synchronization primitives to guard
/// the result of the underlying computation.
pub struct AtomicTask {
state: AtomicUsize,
task: UnsafeCell<Option<Task>>,
// `AtomicTask` is a multi-consumer, single-producer transfer cell. The cell
// stores a `Task` value produced by calls to `register` and many threads can
// race to take the task (to notify it) by calling `notify.
// If a new `Task` instance is produced by calling `register` before an existing
// one is consumed, then the existing one is overwritten.
// While `AtomicTask` is single-producer, the implementation ensures memory
// safety. In the event of concurrent calls to `register`, there will be a
// single winner whose task will get stored in the cell. The losers will not
// have their tasks notified. As such, callers should ensure to add
// synchronization to calls to `register`.
// The implementation uses a single `AtomicUsize` value to coordinate access to
// the `Task` cell. There are two bits that are operated on independently. These
// are represented by `REGISTERING` and `NOTIFYING`.
// The `REGISTERING` bit is set when a producer enters the critical section. The
// `NOTIFYING` bit is set when a consumer enters the critical section. Neither
// bit being set is represented by `WAITING`.
// A thread obtains an exclusive lock on the task cell by transitioning the
// state from `WAITING` to `REGISTERING` or `NOTIFYING`, depending on the
// operation the thread wishes to perform. When this transition is made, it is
// guaranteed that no other thread will access the task cell.
// # Registering
// On a call to `register`, an attempt to transition the state from WAITING to
// REGISTERING is made. On success, the caller obtains a lock on the task cell.
// If the lock is obtained, then the thread sets the task cell to the task
// provided as an argument. Then it attempts to transition the state back from
// If this transition is successful, then the registering process is complete
// and the next call to `notify` will observe the task.
// If the transition fails, then there was a concurrent call to `notify` that
// was unable to access the task cell (due to the registering thread holding the
// lock). To handle this, the registering thread removes the task it just set
// from the cell and calls `notify` on it. This call to notify represents the
// attempt to notify by the other thread (that set the `NOTIFYING` bit). The
// state is then transitioned from `REGISTERING | NOTIFYING` back to `WAITING`.
// This transition must succeed because, at this point, the state cannot be
// transitioned by another thread.
// # Notifying
// On a call to `notify`, an attempt to transition the state from `WAITING` to
// `NOTIFYING` is made. On success, the caller obtains a lock on the task cell.
// If the lock is obtained, then the thread takes ownership of the current value
// in teh task cell, and calls `notify` on it. The state is then transitioned
// back to `WAITING`. This transition must succeed as, at this point, the state
// cannot be transitioned by another thread.
// If the thread is unable to obtain the lock, the `NOTIFYING` bit is still.
// This is because it has either been set by the current thread but the previous
// value included the `REGISTERING` bit **or** a concurrent thread is in the
// `NOTIFYING` critical section. Either way, no action must be taken.
// If the current thread is the only concurrent call to `notify` and another
// thread is in the `register` critical section, when the other thread **exits**
// the `register` critical section, it will observe the `NOTIFYING` bit and
// handle the notify itself.
// If another thread is in the `notify` critical section, then it will handle
// notifying the task.
// # A potential race (is safely handled).
// Imagine the following situation:
// * Thread A obtains the `notify` lock and notifies a task.
// * Before thread A releases the `notify` lock, the notified task is scheduled.
// * Thread B attempts to notify the task. In theory this should result in the
// task being notified, but it cannot because thread A still holds the notify
// lock.
// This case is handled by requiring users of `AtomicTask` to call `register`
// **before** attempting to observe the application state change that resulted
// in the task being notified. The notifiers also change the application state
// before calling notify.
// Because of this, the task will do one of two things.
// 1) Observe the application state change that Thread B is notifying on. In
// this case, it is OK for Thread B's notification to be lost.
// 2) Call register before attempting to observe the application state. Since
// Thread A still holds the `notify` lock, the call to `register` will result
// in the task notifying itself and get scheduled again.
/// Idle state
const WAITING: usize = 0;
/// A new task value is being registered with the `AtomicTask` cell.
const REGISTERING: usize = 0b01;
/// The task currently registered with the `AtomicTask` cell is being notified.
const NOTIFYING: usize = 0b10;
impl AtomicTask {
/// Create an `AtomicTask` initialized with the given `Task`
pub fn new() -> AtomicTask {
// Make sure that task is Sync
trait AssertSync: Sync {}
impl AssertSync for Task {}
AtomicTask {
state: AtomicUsize::new(WAITING),
task: UnsafeCell::new(None),
/// Registers the current task to be notified on calls to `notify`.
/// This is the same as calling `register_task` with `task::current()`.
pub fn register(&self) {
/// Registers the provided task to be notified on calls to `notify`.
/// The new task will take place of any previous tasks that were registered
/// by previous calls to `register`. Any calls to `notify` that happen after
/// a call to `register` (as defined by the memory ordering rules), will
/// notify the `register` caller's task.
/// It is safe to call `register` with multiple other threads concurrently
/// calling `notify`. This will result in the `register` caller's current
/// task being notified once.
/// This function is safe to call concurrently, but this is generally a bad
/// idea. Concurrent calls to `register` will attempt to register different
/// tasks to be notified. One of the callers will win and have its task set,
/// but there is no guarantee as to which caller will succeed.
pub fn register_task(&self, task: Task) {
match self.state.compare_and_swap(WAITING, REGISTERING, Acquire) {
unsafe {
// Locked acquired, update the waker cell
*self.task.get() = Some(task.clone());
// Release the lock. If the state transitioned to include
// the `NOTIFYING` bit, this means that a notify has been
// called concurrently, so we have to remove the task and
// notify it.`
// Start by assuming that the state is `REGISTERING` as this
// is what we jut set it to.
let mut curr = REGISTERING;
// If a task has to be notified, it will be set here.
let mut notify: Option<Task> = None;
loop {
let res = self.state.compare_exchange(
curr, WAITING, AcqRel, Acquire);
match res {
Ok(_) => {
// The atomic exchange was successful, now
// notify the task (if set) and return.
if let Some(task) = notify {
Err(actual) => {
// This branch can only be reached if a
// concurrent thread called `notify`. In this
// case, `actual` **must** be `REGISTERING |
debug_assert_eq!(actual, REGISTERING | NOTIFYING);
// Take the task to notify once the atomic operation has
// completed.
notify = (*self.task.get()).take();
// Update `curr` for the next iteration of the
// loop
curr = actual;
// Currently in the process of notifying the task, i.e.,
// `notify` is currently being called on the old task handle.
// So, we call notify on the new task handle
state => {
// In this case, a concurrent thread is holding the
// "registering" lock. This probably indicates a bug in the
// caller's code as racing to call `register` doesn't make much
// sense.
// We just want to maintain memory safety. It is ok to drop the
// call to `register`.
state == REGISTERING ||
/// Notifies the task that last called `register`.
/// If `register` has not been called yet, then this does nothing.
pub fn notify(&self) {
// AcqRel ordering is used in order to acquire the value of the `task`
// cell as well as to establish a `release` ordering with whatever
// memory the `AtomicTask` is associated with.
match self.state.fetch_or(NOTIFYING, AcqRel) {
// The notifying lock has been acquired.
let task = unsafe { (*self.task.get()).take() };
// Release the lock
self.state.fetch_and(!NOTIFYING, Release);
if let Some(task) = task {
state => {
// There is a concurrent thread currently updating the
// associated task.
// Nothing more to do as the `NOTIFYING` bit has been set. It
// doesn't matter if there are concurrent registering threads or
// not.
state == REGISTERING ||
state == NOTIFYING);
impl Default for AtomicTask {
fn default() -> Self {
impl fmt::Debug for AtomicTask {
fn fmt(&self, fmt: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
write!(fmt, "AtomicTask")
unsafe impl Send for AtomicTask {}
unsafe impl Sync for AtomicTask {}