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//! A one-shot, futures-aware channel
use std::sync::Arc;
use std::sync::atomic::AtomicBool;
use std::sync::atomic::Ordering::SeqCst;
use std::error::Error;
use std::fmt;
use {Future, Poll, Async};
use future::{lazy, Lazy, Executor, IntoFuture};
use lock::Lock;
use task::{self, Task};
/// A future representing the completion of a computation happening elsewhere in
/// memory.
///
/// This is created by the `oneshot::channel` function.
#[must_use = "futures do nothing unless polled"]
#[derive(Debug)]
pub struct Receiver<T> {
inner: Arc<Inner<T>>,
}
/// Represents the completion half of a oneshot through which the result of a
/// computation is signaled.
///
/// This is created by the `oneshot::channel` function.
#[derive(Debug)]
pub struct Sender<T> {
inner: Arc<Inner<T>>,
}
/// Internal state of the `Receiver`/`Sender` pair above. This is all used as
/// the internal synchronization between the two for send/recv operations.
#[derive(Debug)]
struct Inner<T> {
/// Indicates whether this oneshot is complete yet. This is filled in both
/// by `Sender::drop` and by `Receiver::drop`, and both sides interpret it
/// appropriately.
///
/// For `Receiver`, if this is `true`, then it's guaranteed that `data` is
/// unlocked and ready to be inspected.
///
/// For `Sender` if this is `true` then the oneshot has gone away and it
/// can return ready from `poll_cancel`.
complete: AtomicBool,
/// The actual data being transferred as part of this `Receiver`. This is
/// filled in by `Sender::complete` and read by `Receiver::poll`.
///
/// Note that this is protected by `Lock`, but it is in theory safe to
/// replace with an `UnsafeCell` as it's actually protected by `complete`
/// above. I wouldn't recommend doing this, however, unless someone is
/// supremely confident in the various atomic orderings here and there.
data: Lock<Option<T>>,
/// Field to store the task which is blocked in `Receiver::poll`.
///
/// This is filled in when a oneshot is polled but not ready yet. Note that
/// the `Lock` here, unlike in `data` above, is important to resolve races.
/// Both the `Receiver` and the `Sender` halves understand that if they
/// can't acquire the lock then some important interference is happening.
rx_task: Lock<Option<Task>>,
/// Like `rx_task` above, except for the task blocked in
/// `Sender::poll_cancel`. Additionally, `Lock` cannot be `UnsafeCell`.
tx_task: Lock<Option<Task>>,
}
/// Creates a new futures-aware, one-shot channel.
///
/// This function is similar to Rust's channels found in the standard library.
/// Two halves are returned, the first of which is a `Sender` handle, used to
/// signal the end of a computation and provide its value. The second half is a
/// `Receiver` which implements the `Future` trait, resolving to the value that
/// was given to the `Sender` handle.
///
/// Each half can be separately owned and sent across threads/tasks.
///
/// # Examples
///
/// ```
/// use std::thread;
/// use futures::sync::oneshot;
/// use futures::*;
///
/// let (p, c) = oneshot::channel::<i32>();
///
/// thread::spawn(|| {
/// c.map(|i| {
/// println!("got: {}", i);
/// }).wait();
/// });
///
/// p.send(3).unwrap();
/// ```
pub fn channel<T>() -> (Sender<T>, Receiver<T>) {
let inner = Arc::new(Inner::new());
let receiver = Receiver {
inner: inner.clone(),
};
let sender = Sender {
inner: inner,
};
(sender, receiver)
}
impl<T> Inner<T> {
fn new() -> Inner<T> {
Inner {
complete: AtomicBool::new(false),
data: Lock::new(None),
rx_task: Lock::new(None),
tx_task: Lock::new(None),
}
}
fn send(&self, t: T) -> Result<(), T> {
if self.complete.load(SeqCst) {
return Err(t)
}
// Note that this lock acquisition may fail if the receiver
// is closed and sets the `complete` flag to true, whereupon
// the receiver may call `poll()`.
if let Some(mut slot) = self.data.try_lock() {
assert!(slot.is_none());
*slot = Some(t);
drop(slot);
// If the receiver called `close()` between the check at the
// start of the function, and the lock being released, then
// the receiver may not be around to receive it, so try to
// pull it back out.
if self.complete.load(SeqCst) {
// If lock acquisition fails, then receiver is actually
// receiving it, so we're good.
if let Some(mut slot) = self.data.try_lock() {
if let Some(t) = slot.take() {
return Err(t);
}
}
}
Ok(())
} else {
// Must have been closed
Err(t)
}
}
fn poll_cancel(&self) -> Poll<(), ()> {
// Fast path up first, just read the flag and see if our other half is
// gone. This flag is set both in our destructor and the oneshot
// destructor, but our destructor hasn't run yet so if it's set then the
// oneshot is gone.
if self.complete.load(SeqCst) {
return Ok(Async::Ready(()))
}
// If our other half is not gone then we need to park our current task
// and move it into the `notify_cancel` slot to get notified when it's
// actually gone.
//
// If `try_lock` fails, then the `Receiver` is in the process of using
// it, so we can deduce that it's now in the process of going away and
// hence we're canceled. If it succeeds then we just store our handle.
//
// Crucially we then check `oneshot_gone` *again* before we return.
// While we were storing our handle inside `notify_cancel` the `Receiver`
// may have been dropped. The first thing it does is set the flag, and
// if it fails to acquire the lock it assumes that we'll see the flag
// later on. So... we then try to see the flag later on!
let handle = task::current();
match self.tx_task.try_lock() {
Some(mut p) => *p = Some(handle),
None => return Ok(Async::Ready(())),
}
if self.complete.load(SeqCst) {
Ok(Async::Ready(()))
} else {
Ok(Async::NotReady)
}
}
fn is_canceled(&self) -> bool {
self.complete.load(SeqCst)
}
fn drop_tx(&self) {
// Flag that we're a completed `Sender` and try to wake up a receiver.
// Whether or not we actually stored any data will get picked up and
// translated to either an item or cancellation.
//
// Note that if we fail to acquire the `rx_task` lock then that means
// we're in one of two situations:
//
// 1. The receiver is trying to block in `poll`
// 2. The receiver is being dropped
//
// In the first case it'll check the `complete` flag after it's done
// blocking to see if it succeeded. In the latter case we don't need to
// wake up anyone anyway. So in both cases it's ok to ignore the `None`
// case of `try_lock` and bail out.
//
// The first case crucially depends on `Lock` using `SeqCst` ordering
// under the hood. If it instead used `Release` / `Acquire` ordering,
// then it would not necessarily synchronize with `inner.complete`
// and deadlock might be possible, as was observed in
// https://github.com/rust-lang-nursery/futures-rs/pull/219.
self.complete.store(true, SeqCst);
if let Some(mut slot) = self.rx_task.try_lock() {
if let Some(task) = slot.take() {
drop(slot);
task.notify();
}
}
}
fn close_rx(&self) {
// Flag our completion and then attempt to wake up the sender if it's
// blocked. See comments in `drop` below for more info
self.complete.store(true, SeqCst);
if let Some(mut handle) = self.tx_task.try_lock() {
if let Some(task) = handle.take() {
drop(handle);
task.notify()
}
}
}
fn try_recv(&self) -> Result<Option<T>, Canceled> {
// If we're complete, either `::close_rx` or `::drop_tx` was called.
// We can assume a successful send if data is present.
if self.complete.load(SeqCst) {
if let Some(mut slot) = self.data.try_lock() {
if let Some(data) = slot.take() {
return Ok(Some(data.into()));
}
}
// Should there be a different error value or a panic in the case
// where `self.data.try_lock() == None`?
Err(Canceled)
} else {
Ok(None)
}
}
fn recv(&self) -> Poll<T, Canceled> {
let mut done = false;
// Check to see if some data has arrived. If it hasn't then we need to
// block our task.
//
// Note that the acquisition of the `rx_task` lock might fail below, but
// the only situation where this can happen is during `Sender::drop`
// when we are indeed completed already. If that's happening then we
// know we're completed so keep going.
if self.complete.load(SeqCst) {
done = true;
} else {
let task = task::current();
match self.rx_task.try_lock() {
Some(mut slot) => *slot = Some(task),
None => done = true,
}
}
// If we're `done` via one of the paths above, then look at the data and
// figure out what the answer is. If, however, we stored `rx_task`
// successfully above we need to check again if we're completed in case
// a message was sent while `rx_task` was locked and couldn't notify us
// otherwise.
//
// If we're not done, and we're not complete, though, then we've
// successfully blocked our task and we return `NotReady`.
if done || self.complete.load(SeqCst) {
// If taking the lock fails, the sender will realise that the we're
// `done` when it checks the `complete` flag on the way out, and will
// treat the send as a failure.
if let Some(mut slot) = self.data.try_lock() {
if let Some(data) = slot.take() {
return Ok(data.into());
}
}
Err(Canceled)
} else {
Ok(Async::NotReady)
}
}
fn drop_rx(&self) {
// Indicate to the `Sender` that we're done, so any future calls to
// `poll_cancel` are weeded out.
self.complete.store(true, SeqCst);
// If we've blocked a task then there's no need for it to stick around,
// so we need to drop it. If this lock acquisition fails, though, then
// it's just because our `Sender` is trying to take the task, so we
// let them take care of that.
if let Some(mut slot) = self.rx_task.try_lock() {
let task = slot.take();
drop(slot);
drop(task);
}
// Finally, if our `Sender` wants to get notified of us going away, it
// would have stored something in `tx_task`. Here we try to peel that
// out and unpark it.
//
// Note that the `try_lock` here may fail, but only if the `Sender` is
// in the process of filling in the task. If that happens then we
// already flagged `complete` and they'll pick that up above.
if let Some(mut handle) = self.tx_task.try_lock() {
if let Some(task) = handle.take() {
drop(handle);
task.notify()
}
}
}
}
impl<T> Sender<T> {
#[deprecated(note = "renamed to `send`", since = "0.1.11")]
#[doc(hidden)]
#[cfg(feature = "with-deprecated")]
pub fn complete(self, t: T) {
drop(self.send(t));
}
/// Completes this oneshot with a successful result.
///
/// This function will consume `self` and indicate to the other end, the
/// `Receiver`, that the value provided is the result of the computation this
/// represents.
///
/// If the value is successfully enqueued for the remote end to receive,
/// then `Ok(())` is returned. If the receiving end was deallocated before
/// this function was called, however, then `Err` is returned with the value
/// provided.
pub fn send(self, t: T) -> Result<(), T> {
self.inner.send(t)
}
/// Polls this `Sender` half to detect whether the `Receiver` this has
/// paired with has gone away.
///
/// This function can be used to learn about when the `Receiver` (consumer)
/// half has gone away and nothing will be able to receive a message sent
/// from `send`.
///
/// If `Ready` is returned then it means that the `Receiver` has disappeared
/// and the result this `Sender` would otherwise produce should no longer
/// be produced.
///
/// If `NotReady` is returned then the `Receiver` is still alive and may be
/// able to receive a message if sent. The current task, however, is
/// scheduled to receive a notification if the corresponding `Receiver` goes
/// away.
///
/// # Panics
///
/// Like `Future::poll`, this function will panic if it's not called from
/// within the context of a task. In other words, this should only ever be
/// called from inside another future.
///
/// If `Ok(Ready)` is returned then the associated `Receiver` has been
/// dropped, which means any work required for sending should be canceled.
///
/// If you're calling this function from a context that does not have a
/// task, then you can use the `is_canceled` API instead.
pub fn poll_cancel(&mut self) -> Poll<(), ()> {
self.inner.poll_cancel()
}
/// Tests to see whether this `Sender`'s corresponding `Receiver`
/// has gone away.
///
/// This function can be used to learn about when the `Receiver` (consumer)
/// half has gone away and nothing will be able to receive a message sent
/// from `send`.
///
/// Note that this function is intended to *not* be used in the context of a
/// future. If you're implementing a future you probably want to call the
/// `poll_cancel` function which will block the current task if the
/// cancellation hasn't happened yet. This can be useful when working on a
/// non-futures related thread, though, which would otherwise panic if
/// `poll_cancel` were called.
pub fn is_canceled(&self) -> bool {
self.inner.is_canceled()
}
}
impl<T> Drop for Sender<T> {
fn drop(&mut self) {
self.inner.drop_tx()
}
}
/// Error returned from a `Receiver<T>` whenever the corresponding `Sender<T>`
/// is dropped.
#[derive(Clone, Copy, PartialEq, Eq, Debug)]
pub struct Canceled;
impl fmt::Display for Canceled {
fn fmt(&self, fmt: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
write!(fmt, "oneshot canceled")
}
}
impl Error for Canceled {
fn description(&self) -> &str {
"oneshot canceled"
}
}
impl<T> Receiver<T> {
/// Gracefully close this receiver, preventing sending any future messages.
///
/// Any `send` operation which happens after this method returns is
/// guaranteed to fail. Once this method is called the normal `poll` method
/// can be used to determine whether a message was actually sent or not. If
/// `Canceled` is returned from `poll` then no message was sent.
pub fn close(&mut self) {
self.inner.close_rx()
}
/// Attempts to receive a message outside of the context of a task.
///
/// Useful when a [`Context`](Context) is not available such as within a
/// `Drop` impl.
///
/// Does not schedule a task wakeup or have any other side effects.
///
/// A return value of `None` must be considered immediately stale (out of
/// date) unless [`::close`](Receiver::close) has been called first.
///
/// Returns an error if the sender was dropped.
pub fn try_recv(&mut self) -> Result<Option<T>, Canceled> {
self.inner.try_recv()
}
}
impl<T> Future for Receiver<T> {
type Item = T;
type Error = Canceled;
fn poll(&mut self) -> Poll<T, Canceled> {
self.inner.recv()
}
}
impl<T> Drop for Receiver<T> {
fn drop(&mut self) {
self.inner.drop_rx()
}
}
/// Handle returned from the `spawn` function.
///
/// This handle is a future representing the completion of a different future on
/// a separate executor. Created through the `oneshot::spawn` function this
/// handle will resolve when the future provided to `spawn` resolves on the
/// `Executor` instance provided to that function.
///
/// If this handle is dropped then the future will automatically no longer be
/// polled and is scheduled to be dropped. This can be canceled with the
/// `forget` function, however.
pub struct SpawnHandle<T, E> {
rx: Arc<ExecuteInner<Result<T, E>>>,
}
struct ExecuteInner<T> {
inner: Inner<T>,
keep_running: AtomicBool,
}
/// Type of future which `Execute` instances below must be able to spawn.
pub struct Execute<F: Future> {
future: F,
tx: Arc<ExecuteInner<Result<F::Item, F::Error>>>,
}
/// Spawns a `future` onto the instance of `Executor` provided, `executor`,
/// returning a handle representing the completion of the future.
///
/// The `SpawnHandle` returned is a future that is a proxy for `future` itself.
/// When `future` completes on `executor` then the `SpawnHandle` will itself be
/// resolved. Internally `SpawnHandle` contains a `oneshot` channel and is
/// thus safe to send across threads.
///
/// The `future` will be canceled if the `SpawnHandle` is dropped. If this is
/// not desired then the `SpawnHandle::forget` function can be used to continue
/// running the future to completion.
///
/// # Panics
///
/// This function will panic if the instance of `Spawn` provided is unable to
/// spawn the `future` provided.
///
/// If the provided instance of `Spawn` does not actually run `future` to
/// completion, then the returned handle may panic when polled. Typically this
/// is not a problem, though, as most instances of `Spawn` will run futures to
/// completion.
///
/// Note that the returned future will likely panic if the `futures` provided
/// panics. If a future running on an executor panics that typically means that
/// the executor drops the future, which falls into the above case of not
/// running the future to completion essentially.
pub fn spawn<F, E>(future: F, executor: &E) -> SpawnHandle<F::Item, F::Error>
where F: Future,
E: Executor<Execute<F>>,
{
let data = Arc::new(ExecuteInner {
inner: Inner::new(),
keep_running: AtomicBool::new(false),
});
executor.execute(Execute {
future: future,
tx: data.clone(),
}).expect("failed to spawn future");
SpawnHandle { rx: data }
}
/// Spawns a function `f` onto the `Spawn` instance provided `s`.
///
/// For more information see the `spawn` function in this module. This function
/// is just a thin wrapper around `spawn` which will execute the closure on the
/// executor provided and then complete the future that the closure returns.
pub fn spawn_fn<F, R, E>(f: F, executor: &E) -> SpawnHandle<R::Item, R::Error>
where F: FnOnce() -> R,
R: IntoFuture,
E: Executor<Execute<Lazy<F, R>>>,
{
spawn(lazy(f), executor)
}
impl<T, E> SpawnHandle<T, E> {
/// Drop this future without canceling the underlying future.
///
/// When `SpawnHandle` is dropped, the spawned future will be canceled as
/// well if the future hasn't already resolved. This function can be used
/// when to drop this future but keep executing the underlying future.
pub fn forget(self) {
self.rx.keep_running.store(true, SeqCst);
}
}
impl<T, E> Future for SpawnHandle<T, E> {
type Item = T;
type Error = E;
fn poll(&mut self) -> Poll<T, E> {
match self.rx.inner.recv() {
Ok(Async::Ready(Ok(t))) => Ok(t.into()),
Ok(Async::Ready(Err(e))) => Err(e),
Ok(Async::NotReady) => Ok(Async::NotReady),
Err(_) => panic!("future was canceled before completion"),
}
}
}
impl<T: fmt::Debug, E: fmt::Debug> fmt::Debug for SpawnHandle<T, E> {
fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
f.debug_struct("SpawnHandle")
.finish()
}
}
impl<T, E> Drop for SpawnHandle<T, E> {
fn drop(&mut self) {
self.rx.inner.drop_rx();
}
}
impl<F: Future> Future for Execute<F> {
type Item = ();
type Error = ();
fn poll(&mut self) -> Poll<(), ()> {
// If we're canceled then we may want to bail out early.
//
// If the `forget` function was called, though, then we keep going.
if self.tx.inner.poll_cancel().unwrap().is_ready() {
if !self.tx.keep_running.load(SeqCst) {
return Ok(().into())
}
}
let result = match self.future.poll() {
Ok(Async::NotReady) => return Ok(Async::NotReady),
Ok(Async::Ready(t)) => Ok(t),
Err(e) => Err(e),
};
drop(self.tx.inner.send(result));
Ok(().into())
}
}
impl<F: Future + fmt::Debug> fmt::Debug for Execute<F> {
fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
f.debug_struct("Execute")
.field("future", &self.future)
.finish()
}
}
impl<F: Future> Drop for Execute<F> {
fn drop(&mut self) {
self.tx.inner.drop_tx();
}
}