blob: 42dc40533099c486e069c26061b3902a9ced9af2 [file] [log] [blame]
// Copyright 2016 Developers
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0, <LICENSE-APACHE or
//> or the MIT license <LICENSE-MIT or
//>, at your option. This file may not be
// copied, modified, or distributed except according to those terms.
A macro for declaring lazily evaluated statics.
Using this macro, it is possible to have `static`s that require code to be
executed at runtime in order to be initialized.
This includes anything requiring heap allocations, like vectors or hash maps,
as well as anything that requires function calls to be computed.
# Syntax
lazy_static! {
[pub] static ref NAME_1: TYPE_1 = EXPR_1;
[pub] static ref NAME_2: TYPE_2 = EXPR_2;
[pub] static ref NAME_N: TYPE_N = EXPR_N;
Attributes (including doc comments) are supported as well:
# #[macro_use]
# extern crate lazy_static;
# fn main() {
lazy_static! {
/// This is an example for using doc comment attributes
static ref EXAMPLE: u8 = 42;
# }
# Semantics
For a given `static ref NAME: TYPE = EXPR;`, the macro generates a unique type that
implements `Deref<TYPE>` and stores it in a static with name `NAME`. (Attributes end up
attaching to this type.)
On first deref, `EXPR` gets evaluated and stored internally, such that all further derefs
can return a reference to the same object. Note that this can lead to deadlocks
if you have multiple lazy statics that depend on each other in their initialization.
Apart from the lazy initialization, the resulting "static ref" variables
have generally the same properties as regular "static" variables:
- Any type in them needs to fulfill the `Sync` trait.
- If the type has a destructor, then it will not run when the process exits.
# Example
Using the macro:
extern crate lazy_static;
use std::collections::HashMap;
lazy_static! {
static ref HASHMAP: HashMap<u32, &'static str> = {
let mut m = HashMap::new();
m.insert(0, "foo");
m.insert(1, "bar");
m.insert(2, "baz");
static ref COUNT: usize = HASHMAP.len();
static ref NUMBER: u32 = times_two(21);
fn times_two(n: u32) -> u32 { n * 2 }
fn main() {
println!("The map has {} entries.", *COUNT);
println!("The entry for `0` is \"{}\".", HASHMAP.get(&0).unwrap());
println!("A expensive calculation on a static results in: {}.", *NUMBER);
# Implementation details
The `Deref` implementation uses a hidden static variable that is guarded by an atomic check on each access.
# Cargo features
This crate provides two cargo features:
- `nightly`: This uses unstable language features only available on the nightly release channel for a more optimal implementation. In practice this currently means avoiding a heap allocation per static. This feature might get deprecated at a later point once all relevant optimizations are usable from stable.
- `spin_no_std` (implies `nightly`): This allows using this crate in a no-std environment, by depending on the standalone `spin` crate.
Both features depend on unstable language features, which means
no guarantees can be made about them in regard to SemVer stability.
#![doc(html_root_url = "")]
#[cfg(not(feature = "spin_no_std"))]
pub mod lazy;
#[cfg(feature = "spin_no_std")]
pub mod lazy;
pub use core::ops::Deref as __Deref;
macro_rules! __lazy_static_internal {
// optional visibility restrictions are wrapped in `()` to allow for
// explicitly passing otherwise implicit information about private items
($(#[$attr:meta])* ($($vis:tt)*) static ref $N:ident : $T:ty = $e:expr; $($t:tt)*) => {
__lazy_static_internal!(@MAKE TY, $(#[$attr])*, ($($vis)*), $N);
__lazy_static_internal!(@TAIL, $N : $T = $e);
(@TAIL, $N:ident : $T:ty = $e:expr) => {
impl $crate::__Deref for $N {
type Target = $T;
fn deref(&self) -> &$T {
fn __static_ref_initialize() -> $T { $e }
fn __stability() -> &'static $T {
__lazy_static_create!(LAZY, $T);
impl $crate::LazyStatic for $N {
fn initialize(lazy: &Self) {
let _ = &**lazy;
// `vis` is wrapped in `()` to prevent parsing ambiguity
(@MAKE TY, $(#[$attr:meta])*, ($($vis:tt)*), $N:ident) => {
$($vis)* struct $N {__private_field: ()}
$($vis)* static $N: $N = $N {__private_field: ()};
() => ()
macro_rules! lazy_static {
($(#[$attr:meta])* static ref $N:ident : $T:ty = $e:expr; $($t:tt)*) => {
// use `()` to explicitly forward the information about private items
__lazy_static_internal!($(#[$attr])* () static ref $N : $T = $e; $($t)*);
($(#[$attr:meta])* pub static ref $N:ident : $T:ty = $e:expr; $($t:tt)*) => {
__lazy_static_internal!($(#[$attr])* (pub) static ref $N : $T = $e; $($t)*);
($(#[$attr:meta])* pub ($($vis:tt)+) static ref $N:ident : $T:ty = $e:expr; $($t:tt)*) => {
__lazy_static_internal!($(#[$attr])* (pub ($($vis)+)) static ref $N : $T = $e; $($t)*);
() => ()
/// Support trait for enabling a few common operation on lazy static values.
/// This is implemented by each defined lazy static, and
/// used by the free functions in this crate.
pub trait LazyStatic {
fn initialize(lazy: &Self);
/// Takes a shared reference to a lazy static and initializes
/// it if it has not been already.
/// This can be used to control the initialization point of a lazy static.
/// Example:
/// ```rust
/// #[macro_use]
/// extern crate lazy_static;
/// lazy_static! {
/// static ref BUFFER: Vec<u8> = (0..65537).collect();
/// }
/// fn main() {
/// lazy_static::initialize(&BUFFER);
/// // ...
/// work_with_initialized_data(&BUFFER);
/// }
/// # fn work_with_initialized_data(_: &[u8]) {}
/// ```
pub fn initialize<T: LazyStatic>(lazy: &T) {