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* safe-syscall.h: prototypes for linux-user signal-race-safe syscalls
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
* the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
* (at your option) any later version.
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* GNU General Public License for more details.
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
* along with this program; if not, see <>.
* safe_syscall:
* @int number: number of system call to make
* ...: arguments to the system call
* Call a system call if guest signal not pending.
* This has the same API as the libc syscall() function, except that it
* may return -1 with errno == QEMU_ERESTARTSYS if a signal was pending.
* Returns: the system call result, or -1 with an error code in errno
* (Errnos are host errnos; we rely on QEMU_ERESTARTSYS not clashing
* with any of the host errno values.)
* A guide to using safe_syscall() to handle interactions between guest
* syscalls and guest signals:
* Guest syscalls come in two flavours:
* (1) Non-interruptible syscalls
* These are guest syscalls that never get interrupted by signals and
* so never return EINTR. They can be implemented straightforwardly in
* QEMU: just make sure that if the implementation code has to make any
* blocking calls that those calls are retried if they return EINTR.
* It's also OK to implement these with safe_syscall, though it will be
* a little less efficient if a signal is delivered at the 'wrong' moment.
* Some non-interruptible syscalls need to be handled using block_signals()
* to block signals for the duration of the syscall. This mainly applies
* to code which needs to modify the data structures used by the
* host_signal_handler() function and the functions it calls, including
* all syscalls which change the thread's signal mask.
* (2) Interruptible syscalls
* These are guest syscalls that can be interrupted by signals and
* for which we need to either return EINTR or arrange for the guest
* syscall to be restarted. This category includes both syscalls which
* always restart (and in the kernel return -ERESTARTNOINTR), ones
* which only restart if there is no handler (kernel returns -ERESTARTNOHAND
* or -ERESTART_RESTARTBLOCK), and the most common kind which restart
* if the handler was registered with SA_RESTART (kernel returns
* -ERESTARTSYS). System calls which are only interruptible in some
* situations (like 'open') also need to be handled this way.
* Here it is important that the host syscall is made
* via this safe_syscall() function, and *not* via the host libc.
* If the host libc is used then the implementation will appear to work
* most of the time, but there will be a race condition where a
* signal could arrive just before we make the host syscall inside libc,
* and then then guest syscall will not correctly be interrupted.
* Instead the implementation of the guest syscall can use the safe_syscall
* function but otherwise just return the result or errno in the usual
* way; the main loop code will take care of restarting the syscall
* if appropriate.
* (If the implementation needs to make multiple host syscalls this is
* OK; any which might really block must be via safe_syscall(); for those
* which are only technically blocking (ie which we know in practice won't
* stay in the host kernel indefinitely) it's OK to use libc if necessary.
* You must be able to cope with backing out correctly if some safe_syscall
* you make in the implementation returns either -QEMU_ERESTARTSYS or
* EINTR though.)
* block_signals() cannot be used for interruptible syscalls.
* How and why the safe_syscall implementation works:
* The basic setup is that we make the host syscall via a known
* section of host native assembly. If a signal occurs, our signal
* handler checks the interrupted host PC against the addresse of that
* known section. If the PC is before or at the address of the syscall
* instruction then we change the PC to point at a "return
* -QEMU_ERESTARTSYS" code path instead, and then exit the signal handler
* (causing the safe_syscall() call to immediately return that value).
* Then in the main.c loop if we see this magic return value we adjust
* the guest PC to wind it back to before the system call, and invoke
* the guest signal handler as usual.
* This winding-back will happen in two cases:
* (1) signal came in just before we took the host syscall (a race);
* in this case we'll take the guest signal and have another go
* at the syscall afterwards, and this is indistinguishable for the
* guest from the timing having been different such that the guest
* signal really did win the race
* (2) signal came in while the host syscall was blocking, and the
* host kernel decided the syscall should be restarted;
* in this case we want to restart the guest syscall also, and so
* rewinding is the right thing. (Note that "restart" semantics mean
* "first call the signal handler, then reattempt the syscall".)
* The other situation to consider is when a signal came in while the
* host syscall was blocking, and the host kernel decided that the syscall
* should not be restarted; in this case QEMU's host signal handler will
* be invoked with the PC pointing just after the syscall instruction,
* with registers indicating an EINTR return; the special code in the
* handler will not kick in, and we will return EINTR to the guest as
* we should.
* Notice that we can leave the host kernel to make the decision for
* us about whether to do a restart of the syscall or not; we do not
* need to check SA_RESTART flags in QEMU or distinguish the various
* kinds of restartability.
/* The core part of this function is implemented in assembly */
extern long safe_syscall_base(int *pending, long number, ...);
extern long safe_syscall_set_errno_tail(int value);
/* These are defined by the file */
extern char safe_syscall_start[];
extern char safe_syscall_end[];
#define safe_syscall(...) \
safe_syscall_base(&((TaskState *)thread_cpu->opaque)->signal_pending, \