Add visual indication of inlined frames. (#723)

* Add visual indication of inlined frames.

Mark frames sent to javascript with a boolean "Inlined" field. Use
this field to change the display by (1) adding an "(inlined)" marker
to the tooltip for the frame, and (2) by dropping any border between
the caller and the caller.

Document flame graph display, including coloring and visual indication
of inlining.

* Tweak doc changes based on review feedback.
6 files changed
tree: 9b0d025340851e9b5df59fbed6782b0fe3aed4e6
  1. .github/
  2. doc/
  3. driver/
  4. fuzz/
  5. internal/
  6. profile/
  7. proto/
  8. third_party/
  9. .gitattributes
  10. .gitignore
  14. go.mod
  15. go.sum
  17. pprof.go

Github Action CI Codecov Go Reference


pprof is a tool for visualization and analysis of profiling data.

pprof reads a collection of profiling samples in profile.proto format and generates reports to visualize and help analyze the data. It can generate both text and graphical reports (through the use of the dot visualization package).

profile.proto is a protocol buffer that describes a set of callstacks and symbolization information. A common usage is to represent a set of sampled callstacks from statistical profiling. The format is described on the proto/profile.proto file. For details on protocol buffers, see

Profiles can be read from a local file, or over http. Multiple profiles of the same type can be aggregated or compared.

If the profile samples contain machine addresses, pprof can symbolize them through the use of the native binutils tools (addr2line and nm).

This is not an official Google product.

Building pprof


To build and install it:

go install

The binary will be installed $GOPATH/bin ($HOME/go/bin by default).

Basic usage

pprof can read a profile from a file or directly from a server via http. Specify the profile input(s) in the command line, and use options to indicate how to format the report.

Generate a text report of the profile, sorted by hotness:

% pprof -top [main_binary] profile.pb.gz
    main_binary:  Local path to the main program binary, to enable symbolization
    profile.pb.gz: Local path to the profile in a compressed protobuf, or
                   URL to the http service that serves a profile.

Generate a graph in an SVG file, and open it with a web browser:

pprof -web [main_binary] profile.pb.gz

Run pprof on interactive mode:

If no output formatting option is specified, pprof runs on interactive mode, where reads the profile and accepts interactive commands for visualization and refinement of the profile.

pprof [main_binary] profile.pb.gz

This will open a simple shell that takes pprof commands to generate reports.
Type 'help' for available commands/options.

Run pprof via a web interface

If the -http flag is specified, pprof starts a web server at the specified host:port that provides an interactive web-based interface to pprof. Host is optional, and is “localhost” by default. Port is optional, and is a random available port by default. -http=":" starts a server locally at a random port.

pprof -http=[host]:[port] [main_binary] profile.pb.gz

The preceding command should automatically open your web browser at the right page; if not, you can manually visit the specified port in your web browser.

Using pprof with Linux Perf

pprof can read files generated by the Linux perf tool by using the perf_to_profile program from the perf_data_converter package.

Viewing disassembly on Windows

To view disassembly of profiles collected from Go programs compiled as Windows executables, the executable must be built with go build -buildmode=exe. LLVM or GCC must be installed, so required tools like addr2line and nm are available to pprof.

Further documentation

See doc/ for more detailed end-user documentation.

See for contribution documentation.

See proto/ for a description of the profile.proto format.