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# Memory and resource usage
This file contains information about memory and resource management in Magenta,
and talks about ways to examine process and system memory usage.
*** note
**TODO**(dbort): Talk about the relationship between address spaces,
[VMARs](objects/, [mappings](syscalls/, and
## Userspace memory
Which processes are using all of the memory?
### Dump total process memory usage
Use the `ps` tool:
$ ps
j:1028 32.9M 32.8M root
p:1043 1386.3k 1384k 28k bin/devmgr
j:1082 30.0M 30.0M magenta-drivers
p:1209 774.3k 772k 28k /boot/bin/acpisvc
p:1565 250.3k 248k 28k devhost:root
p:1619 654.3k 652k 28k devhost:misc
p:1688 258.3k 256k 28k devhost:platform
p:1867 3878.3k 3876k 28k devhost:pci#1:1234:1111
p:1916 24.4M 24.4M 28k devhost:pci#3:8086:2922
j:1103 1475.7k 1464k magenta-services
p:1104 298.3k 296k 28k crashlogger
p:1290 242.3k 240k 28k netsvc
p:2115 362.3k 360k 28k sh:console
p:2334 266.3k 264k 28k sh:vc
p:2441 306.3k 304k 28k /boot/bin/ps
**PSS** (proportional shared state) is a number of bytes that estimates how much
in-process mapped physical memory the process consumes. Its value is `PRIVATE +
(SHARED / sharing-ratio)`, where `sharing-ratio` is based on the number of
processes that share each of the pages in this process.
The intent is that, e.g., if four processes share a single page, 1/4 of the
bytes of that page is included in each of the four process's `PSS`. If two
processes share a different page, then each gets 1/2 of that page's bytes.
**PRIVATE** is the number of bytes that are mapped only by this process. I.e.,
no other process maps this memory. Note that this does not account for private
VMOs that are not mapped.
**SHARED** is the number of bytes that are mapped by this process and at least
one other process. Note that this does not account for shared VMOs that are not
mapped. It also does not indicate how many processes share the memory: it could
be 2, it could be 50.
### Visualize memory usage
If you have a Fuchsia build, you can use treemap to visualize memory usage by
the system.
1. On your host machine, source the `` script into your shell.
2. Also on your host machine, run the following command from the root of your
Fuchsia checkout:
```fcmd memgraph -vt | ./scripts/memory/ > mem.html```
3. Open `mem.html` in a browser.
The `memgraph` tool generates a JSON description of system task and memory
information, which is then parsed by the `` script. `-vt` says
to include VMOs and threads in the output.
### Dump a process's detailed memory maps
If you want to see why a specific process uses so much memory, you can run the
`vmaps` tool on its koid (koid is the ID that shows up when running ps) to see
what it has mapped into memory.
$ vmaps help
Usage: vmaps <process-koid>
Dumps a process's memory maps to stdout.
First column:
"/A" -- Process address space
"/R" -- Root VMAR
"R" -- VMAR (R for Region)
"M" -- Mapping
Indentation indicates parent/child relationship.
Column tags:
- `:sz`: The virtual size of the entry, in bytes. Not all pages are
necessarily backed by physical memory.
- `:res`: The amount of memory "resident" in the entry, in bytes; i.e., the
amount of physical memory that backs the entry. This memory may be private
(only acceessable by this process) or shared by multiple processes.
- `:vmo`: The `koid` of the VMO mapped into this region.
$ vmaps 2470
/A ________01000000-00007ffffffff000 128.0T:sz 'proc:2470'
/R ________01000000-00007ffffffff000 128.0T:sz 'root'
# This 'R' region is a dynamic library. The r-x section is .text, the r--
# section is .rodata, and the rw- section is .data + .bss.
R 00000187bc867000-00000187bc881000 104k:sz 'useralloc'
M 00000187bc867000-00000187bc87d000 r-x 88k:sz 0B:res 2535:vmo ''
M 00000187bc87e000-00000187bc87f000 r-- 4k:sz 4k:res 2537:vmo ''
M 00000187bc87f000-00000187bc881000 rw- 8k:sz 8k:res 2537:vmo ''
# This 2MB anonymous mapping is probably part of the heap.
M 0000246812b91000-0000246812d91000 rw- 2M:sz 76k:res 2542:vmo 'mmap-anonymous'
# This region looks like a stack: a big chunk of virtual space (:sz) with a
# slightly-smaller mapping inside (accounting for a 4k guard page), and only a
# small amount actually committed (:res).
R 0000358923d92000-0000358923dd3000 260k:sz 'useralloc'
M 0000358923d93000-0000358923dd3000 rw- 256k:sz 16k:res 2538:vmo ''
# The stack for the initial thread, which is allocated differently.
M 0000400cbba84000-0000400cbbac4000 rw- 256k:sz 4k:res 2513:vmo 'initial-stack'
# The vDSO, which only has .text and .rodata.
R 000047e1ab874000-000047e1ab87b000 28k:sz 'useralloc'
M 000047e1ab874000-000047e1ab87a000 r-- 24k:sz 24k:res 1031:vmo 'vdso/full'
M 000047e1ab87a000-000047e1ab87b000 r-x 4k:sz 4k:res 1031:vmo 'vdso/full'
# The main binary for this process.
R 000059f5c7068000-000059f5c708d000 148k:sz 'useralloc'
M 000059f5c7068000-000059f5c7088000 r-x 128k:sz 0B:res 2476:vmo '/boot/bin/sh'
M 000059f5c7089000-000059f5c708b000 r-- 8k:sz 8k:res 2517:vmo '/boot/bin/sh'
M 000059f5c708b000-000059f5c708d000 rw- 8k:sz 8k:res 2517:vmo '/boot/bin/sh'
### Dump all VMOs associated with a process
vmos <pid>
This will also show unmapped VMOs, which neither `ps` nor `vmaps` currently
account for.
It also shows whether a given VMO is a clone, along with its parent's koid.
$ vmos 1118
rights koid parent #chld #map #shr size alloc name
rwxmdt 1170 - 0 1 1 4k 4k stack: msg of 0x5a
r-xmdt 1031 - 2 28 14 28k 28k vdso/full
- 1298 - 0 1 1 2M 68k jemalloc-heap
- 1381 - 0 3 1 516k 8k self-dump-thread:0x12afe79c8b38
- 1233 1232 1 1 1 33.6k 4k
- 1237 1233 0 1 1 4k 4k
- 1153 1146 1 1 1 883.2k 12k
- 1158 1153 0 1 1 16k 12k
- 1159 - 0 1 1 12k 12k
rights koid parent #chld #map #shr size alloc name
- `rights`: If the process points to the VMO via a handle, this column shows
the rights that the handle has, zero or more of:
- `r`: `MX_RIGHT_READ`
- `m`: `MX_RIGHT_MAP`
- **NOTE**: Non-handle entries will have a single '-' in this colum.
- `koid`: The koid of the VMO, if it has one. Zero otherwise. A VMO without a
koid was created by the kernel, and has never had a userspace handle.
- `parent`: The koid of the VMO's parent, if it's a clone.
- `#chld`: The number of active clones (children) of the VMO.
- `#map`: The number of times the VMO is currently mapped into VMARs.
- `#shr`: The number of processes that map (share) the VMO.
- `size`: The VMO's current size, in bytes.
- `alloc`: The amount of physical memory allocated to the VMO, in bytes.
- **NOTE**: If this column contains the value `phys`, it means that the
VMO points to a raw physical address range like a memory-mapped device.
`phys` VMOs do not consume RAM.
- `name`: The name of the VMO, or `-` if its name is empty.
To relate this back to `ps`: each VMO contributes, for its mapped portions
(since not all or any of a VMO's pages may be mapped):
PRIVATE = #shr == 1 ? alloc : 0
SHARED = #shr > 1 ? alloc : 0
### Dump "hidden" (unmapped and kernel) VMOs
> NOTE: This is a kernel command, and will print to the kernel console.
k mx vmos hidden
Similar to `vmos <pid>`, but dumps all VMOs in the system that are not mapped
into any process:
- VMOs that userspace has handles to but does not map
- VMOs that are mapped only into kernel space
- Kernel-only, unmapped VMOs that have no handles
A `koid` value of zero means that only the kernel has a reference to that VMO.
A `#map` value of zero means that the VMO is not mapped into any address space.
**See also**: `k mx vmos all`, which dumps all VMOs in the system. **NOTE**:
It's very common for this output to be truncated because of kernel console
buffer limitations, so it's often better to combine the `k mx vmos hidden`
output with a `vmaps` dump of each user process.
### Limitations
Neither `ps` nor `vmaps` currently account for:
- VMOs or VMO subranges that are not mapped. E.g., you could create a VMO,
write 1G of data into it, and it won't show up here.
None of the process-dumping tools account for:
- Multiply-mapped pages. If you create multiple mappings using the same range
of a VMO, any committed pages of the VMO will be counted as many times as
those pages are mapped. This could be inside the same process, or could be
between processes if those processes share a VMO.
Note that "multiply-mapped pages" includes copy-on-write.
- Underlying kernel memory overhead for resources allocated by a process.
E.g., a process could have a million handles open, and those handles consume
kernel memory.
You can look at process handle consumption with the `k mx ps` command; run
`k mx ps help` for a description of its columns.
## Kernel memory
### Dump system memory arenas and kernel heap usage
Running `kstats -m` will continuously dump information about physical memory
usage and availability. **NOTE**: Running `kstats` without the `-m` switch
will dump CPU stats instead.
$ kstats -m
--- 2017-06-07T05:51:08.021Z ---
total free VMOs kheap kfree wired mmu
2046.9M 1943.8M 20.7M 1.1M 0.9M 72.6M 7.8M
--- 2017-06-07T05:51:09.021Z ---
- `2017-06-07T05:51:08.021Z`: Timestamp of when the stats were collected, as
an ISO 8601 string.
- `total`: The total amount of physical memory available to the system.
- `free`: The amount of unallocated memory.
- `VMOs`: The amount of memory committed to VMOs, both kernel and user. A
superset of all userspace memory. Does not include certain VMOs that fall
under `wired`.
- `kheap`: The amount of kernel heap memory marked as allocated.
- `kfree`: The amount of kernel heap memory marked as free.
- `wired`: The amount of memory reserved by and mapped into the kernel for
reasons not covered by other fields in this struct. Typically for readonly
data like the ram disk and kernel image, and for early-boot dynamic memory.
- `mmu`: The amount of memory used for architecture-specific MMU metadata like
page tables.
### Dump the kernel address space
> NOTE: This is a kernel command, and will print to the kernel console.
k mx asd kernel
Dumps the kernel's VMAR/mapping/VMO hierarchy, similar to the `vmaps` tool for
user processes.
$ k mx asd kernel
as 0xffffffff80252b20 [0xffffff8000000000 0xffffffffffffffff] sz 0x8000000000 fl 0x1 ref 71 'kernel'
vmar 0xffffffff802529a0 [0xffffff8000000000 0xffffffffffffffff] sz 0x8000000000 ref 1 'root'
map 0xffffff80015f89a0 [0xffffff8000000000 0xffffff8fffffffff] sz 0x1000000000 mmufl 0x18 vmo 0xffffff80015f8890/k0 off 0 p ages 0 ref 1 ''
vmo 0xffffff80015f8890/k0 size 0 pages 0 ref 1 parent k0
map 0xffffff80015f8b30 [0xffffff9000000000 0xffffff9000000fff] sz 0x1000 mmufl 0x18 vmo 0xffffff80015f8a40/k0 off 0 pages 0 ref 1 ''
object 0xffffff80015f8a40 base 0x7ffe2000 size 0x1000 ref 1
map 0xffffff80015f8cc0 [0xffffff9000001000 0xffffff9000001fff] sz 0x1000 mmufl 0x1a vmo 0xffffff80015f8bd0/k0 off 0 pages 0 ref 1 ''
object 0xffffff80015f8bd0 base 0xfed00000 size 0x1000 ref 1