Zircon Kernel objects

Zircon is an object-based kernel. User mode code almost exclusively interacts with OS resources via object handles. A handle can be thought of as an active session with a specific OS subsystem scoped to a particular resource.

Zircon actively manages the following resources:

  • processor time
  • memory and address spaces
  • device-io memory
  • interrupts
  • signaling and waiting

Kernel objects for applications





Memory and address space


Kernel objects for drivers

Kernel Object and LK

Some kernel objects wrap one or more LK-level constructs. For example the Thread object wraps one thread_t. However the Channel does not wrap any LK-level objects.

Kernel object lifetime

Kernel objects are ref-counted. Most kernel objects are born during a syscall and are held alive at refcount = 1 by the handle which binds the handle value given as the output of the syscall. The handle object is held alive as long it is attached to a handle table. Handles are detached from the handle table closing them (for example via sys_close()) which decrements the refcount of the kernel object. Usually, when the last handle is closed the kernel object refcount will reach 0 which causes the destructor to be run.

The refcount increases both when new handles (referring to the object) are created and when a direct pointer reference (by some kernel code) is acquired; therefore a kernel object lifetime might be longer than the lifetime of the process that created it.


A kernel object is implemented as a C++ class that derives from Dispatcher and that overrides the methods it implements. Thus, for example, the code of the Thread object is found in ThreadDispatcher. There is plenty of code that only cares about kernel objects in the generic sense, in that case the name you'll see is fbl::RefPtr<Dispatcher>.

Kernel Object security

In principle, kernel objects do not have an intrinsic notion of security and do not do authorization checks; security rights are held by each handle. A single process can have two different handles to the same object with different rights.

See Also