This FTP is rejected

Rejection rationale

Poisson d'avril!

However, the underlying idea of enforcing presence in contexts where nullability is supported by the layout (e.g. table fields, nullable type alias) is one which will likely be incorporated in another FTP.

FTP-042: Non Nullable Types

Poisson d'Avril



FIDL library authors can mark some types and members as nullable with ?. This proposes a way to mark types and members as not nullable.


With type aliasing, a library author can make declarations incorporate nullability into a type, for example:

using MiddleName = string:255?;

It can be valuable to explicitly mark a nullable type as non nullable, for example:

struct FullName {
  GivenName given_name;
  vector<MiddleName> middle_names; // names shouldn't be null
  FamilyName family_name;

Another example is for “boxed” types placed out-of-line:

// An "out-of-line" full name
struct InappropriateFullName {
    option<FullName> full_name; // full_name shouldn't be null


This proposal introduces the non-nullable specifier for types that will mark a nullable type as non-nullable. It's a change to the source language but not the wire format, IR or bindings.

In the cases described above, we would use:

struct FullName {
  GivenName given_name;
  vector<MiddleName¿> middle_names;
  FamilyName family_name;


struct InappropriateFullName {
    option<FullName¿> full_name;

For symmetry with the syntax of type nullability the inverted question mark symbol is used. This is Unicode code-point \u00BF, easily typed on any keyboard.

Possible other use cases are adding non-nullable table members:

table FullName {
  GivenName¿ given_name;
  MiddleName middle-name;
  FamilyName¿ family_name;

Or specifying that a particular xunion member must always be present:

xunion PreferredOperatingSystemVersion {
  float32 Windows;
  float32 MacOS;
  float32 Linux;
  float32¿ Fuchsia;

Implementation strategy

This is not a breaking change but the need for it has recently increased with the new support for generalized type aliases in FIDL.


Non-nullable types are a popular feature of languages like Kotlin, C#, Swift and Typescript. It's a heavily requested feature for Dart.

Documentation and examples

The grammar and language documentation will have to be updated.

Backwards compatibility

This feature is backwards compatible.


Some non-nullable types (such has structs) have a more compact representation than their nullable variant so this will allow for more efficient transport.


Null references have been described by Tony Hoare as a “billion dollar mistake” and can be responsible for security vulnerabilities.


As a compiler change with no impact on IR or bindings we will need to add tests for the fidl frontend compiler.

Drawbacks, alternatives, and unknowns

Some concerns have been raised about the ISO 8859-1 taking the place of US-ASCII characters in FIDL syntax but this character gets the job done.

Prior art and references

As mentioned above Kotlin, C#, Swift and Typescript all allow types to be declared as non-nullable.