Introduction to GN

This is an introduction to GN‘s terms and way of thinking. This should be sufficient background to get your bearings in GN and how it’s used in Zircon. GN (and the Zircon build) are more complicated than the below will discuss, but the average developer will not need to understand most of it on a deeper level.

The GN documentation pages QuickStart and Language give more detailed background on GN, and Reference has the full language documentation. Use the gn help command to print out the reference interactively for individual topics. Ninja has its own documentation as well.

In the Zircon checkout after running scripts/download-prebuilt, scripts/gn and scripts/ninja provide access to the prebuilt binaries.

Two-phase operation: gn and ninja

Unlike make, gn is only ever half the story. It‘s in the name: GN stands for Generate Ninja. There’s a division of responsibilities between the tools that corresponds to a separation of running the build into two steps:

  1. gn gen takes all the configuration choices and makes all the decisions. All it really does is generate the .ninja files in the build directory. This step only has to be done by hand when you change the configuration or completely nuke the build directory. In general, it only needs to be done when the GN files change, and in incremental builds it happens automatically if the GN files or configuration change.

  2. ninja runs the commands to compile and link, etc. It handles incremental builds and parallelism. This is the step you do every time you‘ve changed a source file, like running make. GN automatically emits rules to re-generate the Ninja files by running gn gen again when a relevant file (or some other relevant files) has changed, so for most changes after the first time you’ve built, ninja does it all.

Ninja is very simple compared to something like GNU make. It just compares times and runs commands and its input files are written by machines, not humans. However, it builds in some useful things that we bend over backward to accomplish in make:

  • Rebuild each file when the command line changes. Command lines will only really change when GN runs again. But after that, Ninja is smart about incremental builds re-doing commands for files that have changed and not re-running commands that haven't changed.
  • Handle compiler-generated dependency files. Ninja knows about the makefile subset that compilers emit in .d files and consumes them directly when directed to by GN.
  • Run with -j$(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN) by default. You can pass -j1 to serialize or -j1024 when using Goma, but out of the box it does the parallelism you usually want.
  • Prevent interleaved stdout/stderr output from parallel jobs. Ninja buffers the output so that error messages don't get garbled by spew from multiple processes.
  • Support terse/verbose command output. By default, Ninja emits short Kbuild-style messages for each command it runs, in a wordy-progress-meter style. The -v switch is like V=1 in Kbuild, to show each actual command.

GN was developed as part of the Chromium project to replace older build systems. Fuchsia inherited it from them, and it is now used across the tree as the primary build system.

Build directories and

Ninja always runs in the build directory. All commands Ninja runs are run from the root of the build directory. The common thing is ninja -C build-dir.

Neither GN nor Ninja cares what build directory you use. It‘s common practice to use a subdirectory of the source directory, and since file paths are usually rebased to be relative to the build directory, the file names given to the compiler will have a whole lot of ../ in them if you put your build directory elsewhere; but it should work. It’s long been common practice in Chromium (predating GN itself) to use out/_something_ in the source directory, and Fuchsia inherited that default. But nothing cares what build directory names you choose, though the build-* subdirectory name pattern is in the .gitignore for Zircon and the out subdirectory is in the top-level .gitignore file for Fuchsia.

The basic command is gn gen build-dir. This creates build-dir/ if needed, and populates it with Ninja files for the current configuration. If build-dir/ exists, then gn gen will read that file to set GN build arguments (see below). is a file in GN syntax that can assign values to GN build arguments that override any hardcoded defaults. This means just repeating gn gen build-dir preserves what you did last time.

You can also add --args=... to gn gen or use the gn args command to configure your build arguments. The gn args command gives you a way to run your $EDITOR on the file, and upon exiting the editor the command will re-run gn gen for you with the new arguments. You can also just edit any time, and the next Ninja run will re-generate the build files.

Args can also be set using the fx set command which invokes gn gen. Note that Zircon args are set differently than args for the rest of Fuchsia. For example, to set foxtrot in Fuchsia and zulu in Zircon both to true via fx set:

$ fx set <your configuration> --args 'foxtrot = true' \
    --args 'zircon_extra_args = { zulu = true }'

See GN Build Arguments, particularly zircon_args and zircon_extra_args, for details.

GN syntax and formatting

GN syntax is whitespace-insensitive. x=1 y=2 is the same as:

x = 1
y = 2

However, there is one true indentation and formatting style for GN code. The gn format command reformats syntactically valid GN code into the canonical style. There is editor syntax support for Emacs and Vim. Canonical formatting will be enforced by Tricium and mass reformatting will be done. If you don‘t like the formatting, file bugs or make a change in upstream GN and if it lands we’ll mass reformat everyone to conform to the new one truth.

Source paths and GN labels

GN uses POSIX-style paths (always in represented as strings) both for files and to refer to GN-defined entities. Paths can be relative, which means relative to the directory containing the file where the path string appears. They can also be “source-absolute”, meaning relative to the root of the source tree. Source-absolute paths begin with // in GN.

TODO( This is a hold-over from the “layer cake” design and will probably change soon: Generically, an absolute path will look like //path/to/dir. However, in order to maintain both the standalone Zircon build and the integrated Fuchsia build, all absolute paths in Zircon will look like $zx/path/to/dir. This allows us to use expand $zx to // in the case of the standalone build and //zircon/ in the case of the integrated build.

When source paths are eventually used in commands, they are translated into OS-appropriate paths that are either absolute or relative to the build directory (where commands run).

Predefined variables are used in source path contexts to locate parts of the build directory:

  • $root_build_dir is the build directory itself
  • $root_out_dir is the subdirectory for the current toolchain (see below)
    • This is where all “top-level” targets go. In many GN builds, all executables and libraries go here. But it is not used directly very often in the Zircon build.
  • $target_out_dir is the subdirectory of $root_out_dir for files built by targets in the current file. This is where the object files go. In the Zircon build, this is where executables and libraries go as well.
  • $target_gen_dir is a corresponding place recommended to put generated code
  • $root_gen_dir is a place for generated code needed outside this subdirectory

GN labels are how we refer to things defined in a file. They are based on source paths, and always appear inside GN strings. The full syntax of a GN label is "dir:name" where the dir part is a source path that names the particular file. The name refers to a target defined in that file with target_type("name") { ... }. As a shorthand, you can define a target with the same name as its directory. The label "//path/to/dir" with no : part is a shorthand for "//path/to/dir:dir". This is the most common case.

Dependency graph and files

Everything in GN is rooted in the dependency graph. There is one root file. The only way other files are even read is if there is a dependency on a label in that directory.

There are no wildcards. Every target must be named as a dependency of some other target to get built. You can give individual targets on the ninja command line to explicitly get them built. Otherwise they must be in the graph from the //:default target (named default in the root file).

There is a generic meta-target type called group() that doesn't correspond to a file produced by the build but is rather a way to structure your dependency graph nicely. Top-level targets like default are usually groups. You can have a group for all the drivers for a piece of hardware, a group for all the binaries in a use case, etc.

When some code uses something at runtime (a data file, another executable, etc.) but doesn't use it as a direct input at build time, that file belongs in the data_deps list of target that uses it. In the Zircon build, that will be enough to get the thing into the BOOTFS image at its appointed place.

Targets can also be labeled with testonly = true to indicate that the target contains tests. GN prevents targets that are not testonly from depending on targets that are, allowing for some level of control over where test binaries end up.

The whole Zircon build is driven from one or more zbi() targets. This will make a ZBI by building and using the ZBI host tool. Targets can be placed in this image by existing within its dependency graph, and so you can give it dependencies on the kernel and any drivers or executables you want in the image.

Note that getting targets defined in Ninja files is at the granularity of files, though the dependency graph from default or any other target is at the granularity of an individual target. So having some target in the file in the graph from default makes all targets in that file (and toolchain, see below) available as targets on the Ninja command line even though they are not built by default.

More Advanced Concepts

GN expression language and GN scopes

GN is a simple, dynamically-typed, imperative language whose sole purpose at the end of the day is to produce declarative Ninja rules. Everything revolves around scopes, which is both the lexical binding construct of the language and a data type.

GN values can take any of several types:

  • Boolean, either true or false
  • Integer, signed with normal decimal syntax; not used much
  • String, always in “double-quotes” (note below about $ expansion)
  • Scope, in curly braces: { ... }; see below.
  • List of values, in square brackets: [ 1, true, "foo", { x=1 y=2 } ] is a list of four elements.

Values are dynamically-typed and there is no kind of implicit type coercion, but there is never type-checking as such. Values of different types never compare as equal, but it's not an error to compare them.

String literals expand simple $var or ${var} expressions inside the double-quotes. This is an immediate expansion: x${var}y is the same as x + var + y when var is a string. In this way, any value can be rendered as a pretty-printed string.

Identifiers made up of alphanumerics and underscores can populate a scope via assignment operators. Imperative assignment with = and modification via += are really all the GN language does (there are also some special ways to have side effects like print(), used for debugging; and write_file(), used sparingly).

Each file is internally represented as a scope, and there is no global scope. Shared “globals” can be defined in a .gni file and imported where they are used (import("//path/to/something.gni")). Each `.gni file is processed once per toolchain (see below for information about toolchains), and the resulting scope is copied into the importing file scope.

Target declarations introduce a sub-scope:

foo = true
executable("target") {
  foo = 12
# Outside the target, foo == true

GN is very strict in diagnosing errors when a variable is defined but never used within a scope. The scope inside a target acts like a keyword argument list for the target with checking that the argument names were spelled correctly. The target-defining code can also use assert() to diagnose an error if a required argument was omitted.

A value can also be a scope. Then it's acting like a struct when you use it: value.member. But a scope is always a block of GN code that executes to yield its set of names and values:

foo = {
  x = global_tuning + 42
  If (some_global && other_thing == "foobar") {
    y = 2

This always defines foo.x but only sometimes defines foo.y.

GN toolchains

GN has a concept called a “toolchain”. This will all be happening behind the scenes and Zircon hackers shouldn't need to deal with it directly, but it helps to understand the mechanism.

This is what encapsulates the compilers and default compilation switches. It's also the only real way to get the same things compiled twice in different ways. In Zircon there will be several toolchains:

  • Host
  • Vanilla userland (compiled with default -fPIE)
  • Shared libraries in userland (compiled with -fPIC)
  • userboot
  • Kernel
  • Kernel physical-address mode for ARM64 (compiled with -mstrict-align)
  • Multiboot for x86 (compiled with -m32)
  • UEFI for Gigaboot
  • Toolchains are also used in the “variants” scheme that is how we allow selectively enabling ASan or the like for parts of userland.

Each toolchain is identified by a GN label. The full syntax for target labels is actually //path/to/dir:name(//path/to/toolchain/label). Usually the toolchain is omitted and this is expanded to label($current_toolchain), i.e. label references are usually within the same toolchain.

All the GN files are instantiated separately in each toolchain. Each toolchain can set global variables differently, so GN code can use tests like if (is_kernel) or if (current_toolchain == some_toolchain) to behave differently in different contexts. This way the GN code stays with the source it describes, but it can still do different subsets of shared sources for kernel and user, etc.