Rust bindings

Generating FIDL Rust crates

A FIDL Rust crate can be generated from a FIDL library in two ways:

  1. Manually, using the standard FIDL toolchain.
  2. Automatically, using the Fuchsia build system (which under the hood uses the standard FIDL toolchain). This option is only available within the Fuchsia source tree.

Libraries

A FIDL library maps to a Rust library crate named fidl_, followed by the full library path with underscores instead of dots.

For example, given the library declaration:

library fuchsia.examples;

The corresponding FIDL crate is named fidl_fuchsia_examples:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/fidl_crates/src/main.rs" region_tag="import" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

Traits

Some methods and constants in FIDL Rust crates are provided by implementing traits from the FIDL runtime crate. To access them, you must import the corresponding traits. The easiest way to do this is to import them all at once from the prelude module:

use fidl::prelude::*;

The prelude re-exports traits using the as _ syntax, so the glob import only brings traits into scope for resolving methods and constants. It does not import the trait names themselves.

Constants

Given the constants:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/fuchsia.examples/types.test.fidl" region_tag="consts" %}

The FIDL toolchain generates the following constants:

  • pub const BOARD_SIZE: u8
  • pub const NAME: &str

The correspondence between FIDL primitive types and Rust types is outlined in built-in types.

Fields

This section describes how the FIDL toolchain converts FIDL types to native types in Rust. These types can appear as members in an aggregate type or as parameters to a protocol method.

Built-in types

Note: In Rust, the equivalent type for a optional FIDL type T:optional is an Option of the Rust type for T. These are not explicitly listed in the table below.

In following table, when both an “owned” and “borrowed” variant are specified, the “owned” type refers to the type that would appear in an aggregate type (e.g. as the type of a struct field or vector element), and the “borrowed” type refers to the type that would appear if it were used as a protocol method parameter (from the client‘s perspective) or response tuple value (from the server’s perspective). The distinction between owned and borrowed exists in order to take advantage of Rust’s ownership model. When making a request with a parameter of type T, the proxied function call does not need to take ownership of T so the FIDL toolchain needs to generate a borrowed version of T. Borrowed versions often use &mut since the type T may contain handles, in which case the FIDL bindings zero out the handles when encoding, which modifies the input. Using &mut instead of taking ownership allows callers to reuse the input value if it does not contain handles.

FIDL TypeRust Type
boolbool
int8i8
int16i16
int32i32
int64i64
uint8u8
uint16u16
uint32u32
uint64u64
float32f32
float64f64
array<T, N>&mut [T; N] (borrowed)
[T, N] (owned)
vector<T>:N&[T] (borrowed, when T is a numeric primitive)
&mut dyn ExactSizeIterator (borrowed)
Vec (owned)
string&str (borrowed)
String (owned)
server_end:Pfidl::endpoints::ServerEnd<PMarker>, where PMarker is the marker type for this protocol.
client_end:Pfidl::endpoints::ClientEnd<PMarker> where PMarker is the marker type for this protocol.
zx.handlefidl::Handle
zx.handle:SThe corresponding handle type is used. For example,fidl::Channel or fidl::Vmo

User defined types

Bits, enums, and tables are always referred to using their generated type T. structs and unions can be either required or optional, and used in an owned context or borrowed context, which means that there are four possible equivalent Rust types. For a given struct T or union T, the types are as follows:

ownedborrowed
requiredT&mut T
optionalOption<T>Option<&mut T>

Request, response, and event parameters

When FIDL needs to generate a single Rust type representing the parameters to a request, response, or event, such as for result types, it uses the following rules:

  • Multiple parameters are represented as a tuple of the parameter types.
  • A single parameter is represented just using the parameter's type.
  • An empty set of parameters is represented using the unit type ().

Types

Bits

Given the bits definition:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/fuchsia.examples/types.test.fidl" region_tag="bits" %}

The FIDL toolchain generates a set of bitflags called FileMode with flags FileMode::Read, FileMode::Write, and FileMode::Execute. Bits members are emitted in camel case in the generated Rust code.

The bitflags struct also provides the following methods:

  • get_unknown_bits(&self) -> u16: Returns a primitive value containing only the unknown members from this bits value. For strict bits, it is marked #[deprecated] and always returns 0.
  • has_unknown_bits(&self) -> bool: Returns whether this value contains any unknown bits. For strict bits, it is marked #[deprecated] and always returns false.

The generated FileMode struct always has the complete set of #[derive] rules.

Example usage:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/fidl_crates/src/main.rs" region_tag="bits" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

Enums

Given the enum definition:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/fuchsia.examples/types.test.fidl" region_tag="enums" %}

The FIDL toolchain generates a Rust enum using the specified underlying type, or u32 if none is specified:

#[derive(Copy, Clone, Debug, Eq, PartialEq, Ord, PartialOrd, Hash)]
#[repr(u32)]
pub enum LocationType {
    Museum = 1,
    Airport = 2,
    Restaurant = 3,
}

With the following methods:

  • from_primitive(prim: u32) -> Option<Self>: Returns Some of the enum variant corresponding to the discriminant value if any, and None otherwise.
  • into_primitive(&self) -> u32: Returns the underlying discriminant value.
  • validate(self) -> Result<Self, u32>: Returns Ok of the value if it corresponds to a known member, or an Err of the underlying primitive value otherwise. For strict types, it is marked #[deprecated] and always returns Ok.
  • is_unknown(&self) -> bool: Returns whether this enum is unknown. For strict types, it is marked #[deprecated] and always returns false.

If LocationType is flexible, it will have the following additional methods:

  • from_primitive_allow_unknown(prim: u32) -> Self: Create an instance of the enum from a primitive value.
  • unknown() -> Self: Return a placeholder unknown enum value. If the enum contains a member marked with [Unknown], then the value returned by this method contains the value of specified unknown member.

The generated LocationType enum always has the complete set of #[derive] rules.

Example usage:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/fidl_crates/src/main.rs" region_tag="enums_init" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

To provide source-compatibility, flexible enums have an unknown macro that should be used to match against unknown members instead of the _ pattern. For example, see the use of the LocationTypeUnknown!() macro:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/fidl_crates/src/main.rs" region_tag="enums_flexible_match" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

The unknown macro acts the same as a _ pattern, but it can be configured to expand to an exhaustive match. This is useful for discovering missing cases.

Structs

Given the struct declaration:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/fuchsia.examples/types.test.fidl" region_tag="structs" %}

The FIDL toolchain generates a Rust struct:

#[derive(Debug, Copy, Clone, Eq, PartialEq, Ord, PartialOrd, Hash)]
pub struct Color {
    pub id: u32,
    pub name: String,
}

Note: The Rust bindings do not support default values for FIDL struct members, so the default value for name does not affect the generated Rust struct.

The generated Color struct follows the #[derive] rules.

Example usage:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/fidl_crates/src/main.rs" region_tag="structs" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

Unions

Given the union definition:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/fuchsia.examples/types.test.fidl" region_tag="unions" %}

The FIDL toolchain generates a Rust enum:

#[derive(Debug, Clone, Eq, PartialEq, Ord, PartialOrd, Hash)]
pub enum JsonValue {
    IntValue(i32),
    StringValue(String),
}

With the following methods:

  • validate(self) -> Result<Self, (u64, Vec<u8>)>: Returns Ok of the value if it corresponds to a known variant, or an Err containing the ordinal and raw bytes otherwise. For resource types, the Vec<u8> changes to fidl::UnknownData. For strict types, it is marked #[deprecated] and always returns Ok.
  • is_unknown(&self) -> bool: Returns whether this union is unknown. Always returns false for non-flexible union types. For strict types, it is marked #[deprecated] and always returns false.

If JsonValue is flexible, it will have the following additional methods:

  • unknown(ordinal: u64, data: Vec<u8>) -> Self: Create an unknown union value. This should only be used in tests. For resource types, the Vec<u8> changes to fidl::UnknownData.)

The generated JsonValue enum follows the #[derive] rules.

Example usage:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/fidl_crates/src/main.rs" region_tag="unions_init" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

Flexible unions and unknown variants

Flexible unions have an extra variant generated to represent the unknown case. This variant is considered private and should not be referenced directly.

To provide source-compatibility, flexible unions have an unknown macro that should be used to match against unknown members instead of the _ pattern. For example, see the use of the JsonValueUnknown!() macro:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/fidl_crates/src/main.rs" region_tag="unions_flexible_match" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

The unknown macro acts the same as a _ pattern, but it can be configured to expand to an exhaustive match. This is useful for discovering missing cases.

When a FIDL message containing a union with an unknown variant is decoded into JsonValue, JsonValue::validate returns Err(ordinal, data) where ordinal is the unknown ordinal and data contains the raws bytes and handles.

Encoding a union with an unknown variant writes the unknown data and the original ordinal back onto the wire.

Strict unions fail when decoding an unknown variant. Flexible unions that are value types fail when decoding an unknown variant with handles.

Tables

Given the table definition:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/fuchsia.examples/types.test.fidl" region_tag="tables" %}

The FIDL toolchain generates a struct User with optional members:

#[derive(Debug, PartialEq)]
pub struct User {
  pub age: Option<u8>,
  pub name: Option<String>,
  pub unknown_data: Option<BTreeMap<u64, Vec<u8>>>,
  #[deprecated = "Use `..Foo::empty()` to construct and `..` to match."]
  #[doc(hidden)]
  pub __non_exhaustive: (),
}

And the following associated constants:

  • const EMPTY: User: A User with each member initialized to None.

The unknown_data member stores a mapping from ordinal to the raw bytes of any unknown field that was encountered during decoding. If the table is declared as a resource, the map will also contain the raw handles in addition to the bytes (i.e. the unknown_data member will have type Option<BTreeMap<u64, fidl::UnknownData>>). If no unknown members were encountered during decoding, the unknown_data field is guaranteed to be None rather than Some of an empty map.

The __non_exhaustive member prevents intializing the table exhaustively, which causes API breakage when new fields are added. Instead, you should use the struct update syntax to fill in unspecified fields with empty(). For example:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/fidl_crates/src/main.rs" region_tag="tables_init" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

Similarly, tables do not permit exhaustive matching. Instead, you must use the .. syntax to ignore unspecified fields. For example:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/fidl_crates/src/main.rs" region_tag="tables_match" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

The generated User struct follows the #[derive] rules.

Inline layouts

The generated Rust code uses the the name reserved by fidlc for inline layouts.

Derives

When the FIDL toolchain generates a new struct or enum for a FIDL type, it attempts to derive as many traits from a predefined list of useful traits as it can, including Debug, Copy, Clone, etc. The complete list of traits can be found in Appendix A.

For aggregate types, such as structs, unions, and tables, the set of derives is determined by starting with the list of all possible derives and then removing some based on the fields that are transitively present in the type. For example, aggregate types that transitively contain a vector do not derive Copy, and types that my contain a handle (i.e. types that are not marked as resource) do not derive Copy and Clone. When in doubt, refer to the generated code to check which traits are derived by a specific type. See Appendix B for implementation details.

Protocols

Given a protocol:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/fuchsia.examples/types.test.fidl" region_tag="protocols" %}

Note: The MakeMove method above returns a bool representing success, and a optional response value. This is considered un-idiomatic, you should use an error type instead.

The main entrypoint for interacting with TicTacToe is the TicTacToeMarker struct, which contains two associated types:

  • Proxy: The associated proxy type for use with async clients. In this example, this is a generated TicTacToeProxy type. Synchronous clients should use TicTacToeSynchronousProxy directly (see Synchronous), which is not stored in an associated type on the TicTacToeMarker.
  • RequestStream: The associated request stream that servers implementing this protocol will need to handle. In this example, this is TicTacToeRequestStream, which is generated by FIDL.

Additionally, TicTacToeMarker has the following associated constants from implementing fidl::endpoints::ProtocolMarker:

  • DEBUG_NAME: &’static str: The name of the service suitable for debug purposes.

Note: To use DEBUG_NAME you must import the ProtocolMarker trait.

Other code may be generated depending on the Protocol and method attributes applied to the protocol or its methods.

Client

Asynchronous

For asynchronous clients, the FIDL toolchain generates a TicTacToeProxy struct with the following:

Associated types:

  • TicTacToeProxy::MakeMoveResponseFut: The Future type for the response of a two way method. This type implements std::future::Future<Output = Result<(bool, Option<Box<GameState>>), fidl::Error>> + Send.
  • TicTacToeProxy::OnOpponentMoveResponseFut: The Future type for an incoming event. This type implements std::future::Future<Output = Result<GameState, fidl::Error>> + Send

Methods:

  • new(channel: fidl::AsyncChannel) -> TicTacToeProxy: Create a new proxy for TicTacToe.
  • take_event_stream(&self) -> TicTacToeEventStream: Get a Stream of events from the server end (see Events).

Methods from implementing fidl::endpoints::Proxy:

  • from_channel(channel: fidl::AsyncChannel) -> TicTacToeProxy: Same as TicTacToeProxy::new.
  • into_channel(self) -> Result<fidl::AsyncChannel>: Attempt to convert the proxy back into a channel.
  • as_channel(&self) -> &fidl::AsyncChannel: Get a reference to the proxy's underlying channel
  • is_closed(&self) -> bool: Check if the proxy has received the PEER_CLOSED signal.
  • on_closed<'a>(&'a self) -> fuchsia_async::OnSignals<'a>: Get a future that completes when the proxy receives the PEER_CLOSED signal.

Note: To use the above methods you must import the Proxy trait.

Methods from implementing TicTacToeProxyInterface:

  • start_game(&self, mut start_first: bool) -> Result<(), fidl::Error>: Proxy method for a fire and forget protocol method. It takes as arguments the request parameters and returns an empty result.
  • make_move(&self, mut row: u8, mut col: u8) -> Self::MakeMoveResponseFut: Proxy method for a two way method. It takes as arguments the request parameters and returns a Future of the response.

An example of setting up an asynchronous proxy is available in the Rust tutorial.

The TicTacToeProxyInterface trait can be useful for testing client code. For example, if you write a function that takes &T as a parameter where T: TicTacToeProxyInterface, you can unit test it with a fake proxy type:

use futures::future::{ready, Ready};

struct FakeTicTacToeProxy {
    move_response: (bool, Option<Box<GameState>>),
}

impl TicTacToeProxyInterface for FakeTicTacToeProxy {
    fn start_game(&self, mut start_first: bool) -> Result<(), fidl::Error> {}

    type MakeMoveResponseFut = Ready<fidl::Result<(bool, Option<Box<GameState>>)>>;
    fn make_move(&self, mut row: u8, mut col: u8) -> Self::MakeMoveResponseFut {
        ready(self.move_response.clone())
    }
}

Synchronous

For synchronous clients of the TicTacToe protocol, the FIDL toolchain generates a TicTacToeSynchronousProxy struct with the following methods:

  • new(channel: fidl::Channel) -> TicTacToeSynchronousProxy: Returns a new synchronous proxy over the client end of a channel. The server end is assumed to implement the TicTacToe protocol.
  • into_channel(self) -> fidl::Channel: Convert the proxy back into a channel.
  • start_game(&self, mut a: i64) -> Result<(), fidl::Error>: Proxy method for a fire and forget method: it takes the request parameters as arguments and returns an empty result.
  • make_move(&self, mut row: u8, mut col: u8, __deadline: zx::Time) -> Result<(bool, Option<Box<GameState>>), fidl::Error>: Proxy method for a two way method. It takes the request parameters as arguments followed by a deadline parameter, which dictates how long the method call will wait for a response (or zx::Time::INFINITE to block indefinitely). It returns a Result of the response parameters.
  • wait_for_event(&self, deadline: zx::Time) -> Result<TicTacToeEvent, fidl::Error>: Blocks until an event is received or the deadline expires (use zx::Time::INFINITE to block indefinitely). It returns a Result of the TicTacToeEvent enum.

An example of setting up a synchronous proxy is available in the Rust tutorial.

Server

Protocol request stream

To represent the stream of incoming requests to a server, the FIDL toolchain generates a TicTacToeRequestStream type that implements futures::Stream<Item = Result<TicTacToeRequest, fidl::Error>> as well as fidl::endpoints::RequestStream. Each protocol has a corresponding request stream type.

Request enum

TicTacToeRequest is an enum representing the possible requests of the TicTacToe protocol. It has the following variants:

  • StartGame { start_first: bool, control_handle: TicTacToeControlHandle }: A fire and forget request, which contains the request parameters and a control handle.
  • MakeMove { row: u8, col: u8, responder: TicTacToeMakeMoveResponder }: A two way method request, which contains the request parameters and a responder.

One such enum is generated for each protocol.

Request responder

Each two way method has a corresponding generated responder type, which the server uses to respond to a request. In this example, which only has one two way method, the FIDL toolchain generates TicTacToeMakeMoveResponder, which provides the following methods:

  • send(self, mut success: bool, mut new_state: Option<&mut GameState>) -> Result<(), fidl::Error>: Sends a response.
  • send_no_shutdown_on_err(self, mut success: bool, mut new_state: Option<&mut GameState>) -> Result<(), fidl::Error>: Similar to send but does not shut down the channel if an error occurs.
  • control_handle(&self) -> &TicTacToeControlHandle: Get the underlying control handle.
  • drop_without_shutdown(mut self): Drop the Responder without shutting down the channel.

Protocol control handle

The FIDL toolchain generates TicTacToeControlHandle to encapsulate the client endpoint of the TicTacToe protocol on the server side. It contains the following methods:

  • shutdown(&self): Shut down the channel.
  • shutdown_with_epitaph(&self, status: zx_status::Status): Send an epitaph and then shut down the channel.
  • send_on_opponent_move(&self, mut new_state: &mut GameState) -> Result<(), fidl::Error>: Proxy method for an event, which takes as arguments the event’s parameters and returns an empty result (see Events).

Events

Client

For receiving events on the asynchronous client, the FIDL toolchain generates a TicTacToeEventStream, which can be obtained using the take_event_stream() method on the TicTacToeProxy. TicTacToeEventStream implements futures::Stream<Item = Result<TicTacToeEvent, fidl::Error>>.

For receiving events on the synchronous client, the FIDL toolchain generates a wait_for_event method on the TicTacToeSynchronousProxy that returns a TicTacToeEvent.

TicTacToeEvent is an enum representing the possible events. It has the following variants:

  • OnOpponentMove { new_state: GameState }: Discriminant for the TicTacToeEvent event.

And provides the following methods:

  • into_on_opponent_move(self) -> Option<GameState>: Return Some of the parameters of the event, or None if the variant does not match the method call.

Server

Servers can send events by using the control handle corresponding to the protocol. The control handle can be obtained through a TicTacToeRequest received from the client. For fire and forget methods, the control handle is available through the control_handle field, and for two way methods, it is available through the control_handle() method on the responder. A control handle for a protocol can also be obtained through the corresponding request stream (in this example, TicTacToeRequestStream), since it implements fidl::endpoints::RequestStream.

Results

For a method with an error type:

protocol TicTacToe {
    MakeMove(struct {
      row uint8;
      col uint8;
    }) -> (struct {
      new_state GameState;
    }) error MoveError;
};

The FIDL toolchain generates a public TicTacToeMakeMoveResult type alias for std::result::Result<GameState, MoveError>. The rest of the bindings code for this method is generated as if it has a single response parameter result of type TicTacToeMakeMoveResult. The type used for a successful result follows the parameter type conversion rules.

Protocol composition

FIDL does not have a concept of inheritance, and generates full code as described above for all composed protocols. In other words, the code generated for the following:

protocol A {
    Foo();
};

protocol B {
    compose A;
    Bar();
};

Is the same as the following code:

protocol A {
    Foo();
};

protocol B {
    Foo();
    Bar();
};

Protocol and method attributes

Transitional

The @transitional attribute only affects the ProxyInterface trait, which is sometimes used in test code. For non-test code, protocols can be transitioned on the server side by having request handlers temporarily use a catch-all match arm in the Request handler. Client code does not need to be soft transitioned since the generated proxy will always implement all methods.

For methods annotated with the @transitional attribute, the ProxyInterface trait for asynchronous clients provides default implementations that call unimplemented!(). As noted earlier, this has no effect on the Proxy type, which always implements all the trait's methods. However, it can help for soft transitions when the ProxyInterface trait is used for fake proxies in client-side unit tests.

Discoverable

For protocols annotated with the @discoverable attribute, the Marker type additionally implements the fidl::endpoints::DiscoverableProtocolMarker trait. This provides the PROTOCOL_NAME associated constant.

Explicit encoding and decoding

FIDL messages are automatically encoded when they are sent and decoded when they are received. You can also encode and decode explicitly, for example to persist FIDL data to a file. This works for non-resource structs, tables, and unions.

Simple method

The easiest way to to explicitly encode and decode is to use encode_persistent and decode_persistent.

For example, you can encode a Color struct:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/persistence/src/lib.rs" region_tag="simple_method_encode" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

And then decode it later:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/persistence/src/lib.rs" region_tag="simple_method_decode" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

Separating the header

The simple method automatically places a small header at the beginning that stores FIDL metadata. For advanced use cases, you can manage the header manually. For example, you can encode both a JsonValue union and a User table using only one header instead of two:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/persistence/src/lib.rs" region_tag="separate_header_encode" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

Then, you must first decode the header and use it to decode the other values:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="examples/fidl/rust/persistence/src/lib.rs" region_tag="separate_header_decode" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

Appendix A: Derived traits

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="tools/fidl/fidlgen_rust/codegen/ir.go" region_tag="derived_traits" adjust_indentation="auto" %}

Appendix B: Fill derives

The calculation of traits derivation rules is visible in fidlgen_rust:

{% includecode gerrit_repo="fuchsia/fuchsia" gerrit_path="tools/fidl/fidlgen_rust/codegen/ir.go" region_tag="fill_derives" adjust_indentation="auto" %}