On x86-64, the kernel uses the
IRETQ instructions to return from system calls and interrupts, respectively. We must be careful not to use a non-canonical return address in these instructions, at least on Intel CPUs, because this causes the instructions to fault in kernel mode, which is unsafe. In contrast, on AMD CPUs,
SYSRET faults in user mode when used with a non-canonical return address.
One of the problems with these instructions faulting in kernel mode is that the instructions occur at the end of the interrupt or syscall handling mechanism, after the
gs register has been swapped from the kernel
x86_percpu variable to a value that is controlled by userspace. When an exception occurs in kernel mode, the
gs register is not changed because it assumes that the current
gs register belongs to the kernel. This would lead to the kernel handling the fault using a
x86_percpu structure controlled by the user and could easily lead to kernel code execution.
Usually, the lowest non-negative non-canonical address is
0x0000800000000000 (== 1 << 47). One way that a user process could cause the syscall return address to be non-canonical is by mapping a 4k executable page immediately below that address (at
0x00007ffffffff000), putting a
SYSCALL instruction at the end of that page, and executing the
To avoid this problem:
We disallow mapping a page when the virtual address of the following page will be non-canonical.
We disallow setting the
RIP register to a non-canonical address using
We disallow setting the thread entry point to a non-canonical address in
For more background, see “A Stitch In Time Saves Nine: A Case Of Multiple OS Vulnerability”, Rafal Wojtczuk