This document explains the internal architecture of Ledger.


The Ledger implementation is logically composed of the following components:

  • Storage that stores and provides access to the data locally,
  • client components that interact with storage:
    • Local client that exposes Ledger FIDL API to locally running apps,
    • Cloud sync that synchronizes the Ledger state across devices

architecture diagram

All of these components run together within the Ledger process.


Ledger stores data in key-value stores called pages. A page changes in atomic commits, each commit adding, removing or modifying one or more entries in the key-value store.

The commit history of each page forms a DAG in which each commit has either no parents (initial commit), 1 parent (regular commit) or 2 parents (merge commit).

The Storage component persists:

  • the commit history of each page
  • immutable storage objects holding the state of each page
  • sync metadata, including synchronization state of each object

The contents of each commit are key-value pairs (entries), stored in a B-Tree-like structure with the following main properties:

  • entries are ordered by the keys, permitting efficient evaluation of range queries
  • tree nodes are immutable, allowing referencing the same node from two (or more) different commits and thus avoiding duplicating the state among different commits with similar content
  • the B-Tree is history-independent, i.e. given the same set of entries, the resulting structure of the tree will be the same, independently of the insertion order. This property permits to efficiently compute the diff between two given commits.

Storage exposes a key-value API to Local client and creates new storage objects and commits in response to modifications the Local client makes. Similarly, Storage receives commits and storage objects synced from other devices from Cloud Sync.


Local client

Local Client exposes a FIDL API to apps running on the device. In response to modifications to the key-value store requested by apps connecting to Ledger, it makes corresponding calls to Storage.

When notified about a conflict by Storage, Local client resolves it according to the policy selected by the client app, calling back to it if necessary - see Conflict resolution in the API Guide.


Cloud sync

Cloud sync is notified by Storage about new locally-produced commits and is responsible for pushing them, along with the associated storage objects, to the cloud. Conversely, Cloud sync also tracks new commits being synced to the cloud by other devices, downloads them and registers them with Storage.