tree: 660f79cb5f81ddac6a83f3813724d14bdcac46b6 [path history] [tgz]
  2. ast.h
  3. ast_test.h
  7. combinators.h
  9. error.h
  12. parse_result.h
  14. parser.h
  19. text_match.h

Fuchsia Shell Parser

Provides a basic parser for the shell grammar.

The parser is built on combinators, which means the parser is built out of other parsers.

A parser in the source appears as a function taking a single argument of type ParseResult and returning a value of type ParseResult. The argument is the result of parsing a prefix before the current parse. As an example, consider the grammar:

S <- A B

Assuming we had parser functions for A and B, named A() and B() respectively, we could implement S as follows:

ParseResult S(ParseResult prefix) {
  return B(A(prefix));

A ParseResult represents a position in the string. If parsing fails completely, the returned ParseResult is equal to ParseResult::kEnd, which tests false when used as a boolean. Generally, we hope that a failed parse will be recovered, so we will always get a valid parse from our grammar, but it may or may not contain error nodes where we had to recover a failure.

ParseResult contains three pieces of information: the “tail” of the parse, representing the un-parsed data remaining after the parse, error statistics, which includes the number of errors and the number of characters that were successfully parsed without error, and a stack, which contains the AST nodes we have produced.

To understand the stack, consider our A B example above. After successfully parsing S, the stack might contain two nodes:

Node::A("A") Node::B("B")

The ParseResult's node accessor would yield Node::B, as it yields the top of the stack. We can call Reduce() on a ParseResult to collapse the stack into a single node, so if we called Reduce<Node::S>() on our result, we would end up with one node on the stack:

Node::S(children = { Node::A Node::B })

Reduce() will consume the entire stack by default. This is inconvenient for more complicated parsers. To make S safe, we would insert a “marker node” to indicate the point in the stack where Reduce() should stop consuming. Thus our implementation looks like this:

ParseResult S(ParseResult prefix) {
  return B(A(prefix.Mark())).Reduce<Node::S>();

This pattern is somewhat unwieldy, so we implement several combinator functions to produce it automatically. The NT (“NonTerminal”) combinator takes a parser as input and automatically places a Mark() before it and a Reduce() after it, while the Seq combinator runs two parsers in sequence.

ParseResult S(ParseResult prefix) {
  return NT<Node::S>(Seq(A, B));

Error Handling in a Nutshell

To mark and recover an error during parsing, there are two special combinators: ErInsert and ErSkip.

ErSkip takes a child parser, which it runs. If that child parser parses without error, the parsed text is discarded and an error is inserted instead. Here's an example:

Alt(Expression, ErSkip("Expected expression before '%MATCH%'", OnePlus(AnyCharBut(";"))));

This parser would attempt to parse an expression, and if it can't find one, it will consume up to the next semicolon and insert an error message. Note the '%MATCH%' in the message string; this will be substituted for the text matched before the semicolon. The parse result moves ahead by the length of the match, but the internal count of successfully-parsed characters (accessed via parsed_successfully()) does not increase.

If the parser given to ErSkip doesn't match without error, ErSkip fails completely, so error recovery does not occur.

ErInsert is more straightforward than ErSkip. It injects an error at the current parse position without moving.

Alt(Expression, Alt(Token(";"), ErInsert("Expected semicolon")));