This document explains the terminology we use around POSIX compatibility in Fuchsia.
The child address space is a range of memory addresses that are specific to each child processes. When running in restricted mode, a thread in a child process has read/write accesss to the memory mapped to these addresses.
The rest of the userspace addresses in each child process are part of the Starnix addres space.
A child process is a process running with starnix as its supervisor. The child process runs in an environment that matches the Linux UAPI. These processes can run binaries that have been compiled for Linux rather than Fuchsia.
A file descriptor is a numerical value that a child process can use to refer to a file object. The mapping between file descriptors and file objects is stored in the file descriptor table for the child process.
A futex is an object that lets the caller wait for a condition to occur at a given memory address. Futexes are often used as primitive building blocks for synchronization primitives, such as mutexes and condition variables.
Different operating systems have different futex semantics. In the context of Starnix, we need to be careful to distinguish between Zircon futex semantics and Linux futex semantics, which we refer to as a lutex.
The performance of the system overall is quite sensitive to the performance of futexes.
The term “galaxy” refers to the Starnix runner bundled with a particular system image and configuration. For example, the
stardroid galaxy is a starnix runner instance configured to run binaries using an Android system image.
A handle is a numerical value that a Fuchsia process can use to refer to a Zircon kernel object. The mapping between handles and Zircon kernel objects is stored in the handle table for the Fuchsia process.
A Linux binary is binary program that was compiled targeting the Linux UAPI. For example, the binary might have been compiled with
clang using the
--target=aarch64-linux-android21 flag. These binaries do not run directly on Fuchsia because they expect an initial memory layout and system call semantics that match Linux rather than Fuchsia. Instead, we can use Starnix to run these binaries because Starnix provides the runtime environment that these binaries expect.
A Linux distribution is one or more disk images that contain Linux binaries and associated configuration information. For example, a typical distribution will contain a
/bin directory with executables, a
/lib directory with shared libraries, and an
/etc directory with configuration information.
Although Starnix can run standalone Linux binaries, most Linux binaries are designed to run in the context of a Linux distribution. For this reason, Starnix often runs Linux binaries with a root file system that has mounted a Linux distribution.
The Linux UAPI is the application programing interface that the Linux kernel exposes to userspace programs. Linux binaries expect to run in an environment that matches the semantices defined by the Linux UAPI.
There are many implementations of the Linux UAPI. The most common implementation is provided by the Linux kernel itself (or one of its forks), but there are other implementations, such as gVisor.
Normal mode is an execution mode for a thread that receives system calls from when the thread is executing in restricted mode. When running in normal mode, the thread is executing code from the starnix runner, has read/write access to the starnix address space, and can interact directly with handles.
Normal mode is currently in the design phase.
POSIX Lite is an implementation of many POSIX interfaces on Fuchsia. POSIX Lite differs from Starnix because programs that use POSIX Lite need to be compiled targetting the Fuchsia System Interface whereas programs that use Starnix need to be compiled targetting the Linux UAPI.
Additionally, POSIX Lite is a subset of the POSIX interface that can be implemented while respecting the capability security model of the Fuchsia system whereas Starnix is a more complete implementation of POSIX that can run precompiled Linux binaries without modification.
Restricted mode is a execution mode for a thread that causes system calls issued by the thread to be routed to the normal mode rather than handled by the Zircon kernel itself. When running in restricted mode, the thread is executing code from the Linux binary, has no access to the starnix address space, and cannot interact directly with handles.
Restricted mode is currently in the design phase.
Starnix is an environment for running precompiled Linux binaries on Fuchsia. Starnix aims to implement the Linux UAPI in sufficient detail to be able to run a large number of Linux binaries without modification.
The starnix address space is a range of memory addresses that have a consistent mapping to physical memory across child processes. These shared mappings let the starnix runner implement system calls from child processes using data structures that are shared between child processes.
For example, suppose a child process calls
/proc/14/fd/7. The shared Starnix address space lets the starnix runner examine the file descriptor table for process 14 and create a new entry in the file descriptor table for the current process that refers to the same file object as file descriptor 7 for process 14.
The starnix manager is a Fuchsia component that provides scaffolding for developing starnix. For example, starnix manager provides a
playground collection that developers can use to run and interact with basic components, such as
As starnix matures, we might remove starnix manager entirely or replace it with a dedicated developer component.
The starnix runner is a Fuchsia component framework (CFv2) runner that can run Linux binaries. Specifically, the starnix runner implements the
fuchsia.component.runner.ComponentRunner protocol. The starnix runner is analogous to the ELF Runner, which runs ELF binaries compiled for Fuchsia.
To run a Linux binary, the starnix runner creates a new child process and loads the binary into the process. If that process calls
fork(), starnix will create another child process to back the newly forked process.
The starnix test runner is a test runner that adapts Linux binaries to the
fuchsia.test.Suite interface, making it possible to run Linux binaries as Fuchsia tests. The starnix test runner uses a dedicated instance of the starnix runner in order to make these tests hermetic.
A system call (also called a syscall) is a mechanism that lets a userspace process transfer control of a thread to the kernel. Typically, kernels provide userspace a variety of functionality that userspace can select among using a system call number. The semantics of system calls vary by operating system.
For Starnix, we need to distinguish between Linux and Zircon system calls. When a Linux binary issues a system call, the program expects the system call to have the semantics defined by the Linux UAPI. When a Fuchsia program issues a system call, the program expects the system call to have the semantics defined by Zircon.
To distinguish these cases, a given thread in a child process is either running in restricted mode or supervisor mode. When running in restricted mode, system calls have Linux UAPI semantics and are handled by the starnix runner. When running in supervisor mode, system calls are handled by Zircon.
The vector state of the CPU is the state of the vector registers of the CPU, which contain the operands for vector instructions. Typically, the vector state of a CPU is quite extensive compared to the integer state of the CPU, which are the registers that contain the operands for normal arithmetic and logical instructions.